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29 Cards in this Set

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an autotroph that does photosynthesis to obtain energy.

1. ex; plants, algae, some bacteria

2. Do not live in hot dark and acidic environments


Series of chemical reactions that use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to sugar and oxygen

1. 3 CO2 + 3 H2O --> C3H6O3 + 3 O2

2. Relatively efficient


Chemicals found in photosynthetic cells that are able to absorb visible light

1. Reflected wavelengths are shown

2. Chlorophyll is a green _______ found in plants


A saclike membrane in the chloroplasts of plant cells that is often arranged in stacks called grana and that is the site of the light reactions of photosynthesis.

1. Contain pigments and enzymes.

2. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in __________.


Stacks of thylakoid membrane sacs

1. Looks similar to a stack of pancakes

2. Stroma surrounds ________


Space surrounding the grana

1. Matrix of the chloroplast

2. Spongey and colorless


Site of photosynthesis in plant and algae cells.

1. Has a semi-permeable membrane

2. Only found in plant cells


Green pigments found in thylakoids

1. ___________ a and b absorb blue/violet and red/orange light, and reflect yellow/green

2. As the __________ content of leaves declines in the fall, the accessory pigments become more visible.

Light Reactions

Pigments in thylakoids absorb light and convert it to chemical energy carried by short-lived, high-energy molecules

1. Water is split into electrons, H+ ions, and oxygen

2. PSI and PSII absorb light energy


Makes use of light to transfer electrons

2. Absorb light energy

2. Absorb light energy


Oxides water to harvest electrons

1. Drives oxidation of water

2. Absorbs light

Calvin Cycle

The second set of reactions in photosynthesis

1. Necessary to produce organic molecules

2. Converts energy in ATP and NADPH into more stable, high energy sugars


A molecule that combines with carbon dioxide to form a six carbon sugar

2. Ribulose biphosphate

2. Ribulose biphosphate


A molecule that is reduced in PSI.

1. Used in anabolic reactions

2. Hydrogen carrier

ATP Synthetase

The process that diffuses H+ ions to form ATP

1. Allows proteins to diffuse out of thylakoids

2. Enzyme


A three carbon sugar formed by carbon dioxide and RuBP

1. In central metabolic pathways

2. Acts as an intermediate


Activity per unit of time

1. _____ of change is known in math as slope

2. The crime ____ rose by 26%


A decline in photosynthesis

2. Light induced reduction

2. Light induced reduction

Saturation point

The light intensity above the light response curve

1. No more of something can be absorbed

2. Flat-line

Limiting factors

Factors that limit the rate of a reaction

1. Ex; temperature

2. Law of the Minimum


An enzyme found in plant chloroplasts

2. Involved n first step of carbon fixation

2. Involved n first step of carbon fixation


The result of an organism losing carbon atoms

1 . Oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle

2. Benefits are unclear

Bundle sheath cells

The cells that surround the veins in leaves

1. Found in layers

2. Contain chloroplast and are the site of Calvin cycle

C3 Plants

Most efficient in photosynthesis when in cool and wet climates

1. Most energy efficient method

2. Most plants

C4 Plants

Most efficient in photosynthesis when in hot, dry climates.

1. Tropical grasses like corn and sugarcane

2. Loses less water then C3


Carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions

1. Ex; pineapple, agave

2. Best water conservation


An opening in leaves in which gases are exchanged

1. Opening in membrane

2. Water and gases pass through


Autotrophs that use chemosynthesis

1. Include bacteria that are in a too dark, acidic, or hot area

2. Inefficient


Set of chemical reactions in which inorganic substances are oxidized in the presence of CO2 to make sugar

1. Relatively inefficient

2. Chemoautotrophs do this