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29 Cards in this Set

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Photoautotroph

an autotroph that does photosynthesis to obtain energy.

1. ex; plants, algae, some bacteria


2. Do not live in hot dark and acidic environments

Photosynthesis

Series of chemical reactions that use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to sugar and oxygen

1. 3 CO2 + 3 H2O --> C3H6O3 + 3 O2


2. Relatively efficient

Pigments

Chemicals found in photosynthetic cells that are able to absorb visible light

1. Reflected wavelengths are shown


2. Chlorophyll is a green _______ found in plants

Thylakoids


A saclike membrane in the chloroplasts of plant cells that is often arranged in stacks called grana and that is the site of the light reactions of photosynthesis.

1. Contain pigments and enzymes.


2. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in __________.

Grana

Stacks of thylakoid membrane sacs

1. Looks similar to a stack of pancakes


2. Stroma surrounds ________

Stroma

Space surrounding the grana

1. Matrix of the chloroplast


2. Spongey and colorless

Chloroplast

Site of photosynthesis in plant and algae cells.

1. Has a semi-permeable membrane


2. Only found in plant cells

Chlorophyll

Green pigments found in thylakoids

1. ___________ a and b absorb blue/violet and red/orange light, and reflect yellow/green


2. As the __________ content of leaves declines in the fall, the accessory pigments become more visible.

Light Reactions

Pigments in thylakoids absorb light and convert it to chemical energy carried by short-lived, high-energy molecules

1. Water is split into electrons, H+ ions, and oxygen


2. PSI and PSII absorb light energy

PSI

Makes use of light to transfer electrons

2. Absorb light energy

2. Absorb light energy

PSII


Oxides water to harvest electrons

1. Drives oxidation of water


2. Absorbs light

Calvin Cycle


The second set of reactions in photosynthesis

1. Necessary to produce organic molecules


2. Converts energy in ATP and NADPH into more stable, high energy sugars

RuBP

A molecule that combines with carbon dioxide to form a six carbon sugar

2. Ribulose biphosphate

2. Ribulose biphosphate

NADP+/NADPH

A molecule that is reduced in PSI.

1. Used in anabolic reactions


2. Hydrogen carrier

ATP Synthetase

The process that diffuses H+ ions to form ATP

1. Allows proteins to diffuse out of thylakoids


2. Enzyme

PGA/PGAL

A three carbon sugar formed by carbon dioxide and RuBP

1. In central metabolic pathways


2. Acts as an intermediate

Rate

Activity per unit of time

1. _____ of change is known in math as slope


2. The crime ____ rose by 26%

Photoinhibition

A decline in photosynthesis

2. Light induced reduction

2. Light induced reduction

Saturation point

The light intensity above the light response curve

1. No more of something can be absorbed


2. Flat-line

Limiting factors

Factors that limit the rate of a reaction

1. Ex; temperature


2. Law of the Minimum

Rubisco

An enzyme found in plant chloroplasts

2. Involved n first step of carbon fixation

2. Involved n first step of carbon fixation

Photorespiration

The result of an organism losing carbon atoms

1 . Oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle


2. Benefits are unclear

Bundle sheath cells

The cells that surround the veins in leaves

1. Found in layers


2. Contain chloroplast and are the site of Calvin cycle

C3 Plants

Most efficient in photosynthesis when in cool and wet climates

1. Most energy efficient method


2. Most plants

C4 Plants

Most efficient in photosynthesis when in hot, dry climates.

1. Tropical grasses like corn and sugarcane


2. Loses less water then C3

CAM

Carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions

1. Ex; pineapple, agave


2. Best water conservation

Stomates

An opening in leaves in which gases are exchanged

1. Opening in membrane


2. Water and gases pass through

Chemoautotrophs

Autotrophs that use chemosynthesis

1. Include bacteria that are in a too dark, acidic, or hot area


2. Inefficient

Chemosynthesis

Set of chemical reactions in which inorganic substances are oxidized in the presence of CO2 to make sugar

1. Relatively inefficient


2. Chemoautotrophs do this