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44 Cards in this Set

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Scientific Method

themethod of investigation by observation and experimentation of natural phenomenato reach a conclusion regarding the “laws ofnature” and the physical sciences.
deductive reasoning
arrivingat a “truth” (conclusion) by applying a generalization or general law / proposition to a specific case.
inductive reasoning
arrivingat a “truth” (conclusion) by observing a number of specific cases, notingtheir consistencies, and making a general statement (conclusion) based uponthose observations.
empirical method
usingempirical data (that which can be discerned using the senses) to establish scientific “truth.”
geocentric model of the universe
themodel of the universe (solar system) that placed the Earth at the center and all the “celestial bodies” (sun,moon, stars, planets, etc.) fixed in “crystalline spheres” which revolved around it.
heliocentric model of the universe
themodel of the universe (solar system) that placed the Sun at the centerand the Earth and all the planets in orbits around it
Scientific Revolution
thetransition from the Medieval perspective of the world / universe and the natureof humanity, based largely on religiousteachings, to a more modernperspective based upon the discoveries and resulting theories of the group of scientists and “natural philosophers” of the16th – 17th centuries.
world-machine concept
theconcept developed by Sir Isaac Newton that the universe is one large mechanism governed by natural lawsoperating in absolute time, space and motion.
pantheism
abelief that “God” exists in all things (organic / inorganic; animate /inanimate); “God” and the universe are one and the same.

Cartesian dualism


theprinciple developed by Rene Descartes that all things in the universe may be classified in one of two broadercategories: “physical” – that which may be perceived by the senses and therefore observed and measured; or“metaphysical” – that which may not be perceived by the senses, such asthought, emotions, spirituality


Rationalism
–a school of thought that maintains that human reason and experience are thechief sources of human knowledge.
philosophes
–the French name given to the thinkers and philosophers of theEnlightenment. They were committed to the causes of reform(change for the better) in society and human progress.
Revolution of the Heavenly Bodies
thework published by Nicholas Copernicus in the year after his death (1544) which detailed his observations ofthe movement of the planets around the sun, the “heliocentric model” of the universe / solar system.
three laws of celestial mechanics
theconclusions of German astronomer Johannes Kepler that the orbits ofthe planets around the sun were elliptical rather than circular paths.
Principia Mathematica
thelandmark work published by Sir Isaac Newton in 1687, which contained his mathematical formulas for the law of gravity, the laws of physics, andthe movement of the planets
The Enlightenment
alsoknown as the “Age of Reason”; period of European history following the Scientific Revolution in the 16th– 18th centuries when philosophers, social theorists and political thinkers began to apply the principles of “naturallaw” to human behavior and social institutions.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
awork written and published by John Locke in 1690, which maintained that the human mind was “blankslate” at birth and thus subject to the lessons of experience and theenvironment in which it developed and learned.
tabula rasa
a term for the “blankslate” of the human mind at birth
Deism
abelief or theological position popular among the educated classes of theEnlightenment period that God was the “Master Clock-maker” whocreated the universe and all of the laws of nature, set them in motion and then removed himself from any further active participation init.
separation of powers
–a political principle popularized by Montesquieu that advocated the division ofthe functions of governing (executive,legislative, judicial) into separate and distinct branches.
Spirit of the Laws (1748)
thework of French political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu, in which he argued for the separation of the powersof government into distinct branches – legislative, executive and judicial.
The Wealth of Nations (1776)
thelandmark work on free-enterprise capitalism, written by Scottish political economist Adam Smith (oftenreferred to as the “father of free enterprise”) and published in 1776, itadvocated free and open competition in a market economy unrestricted bygovernment policy
laissez-faire
aFrench phrase meaning roughly “Let them do what they will,” it became thetrademark of a free-market capitalist economy.
Encyclopedie
acomprehensive collection of thirty-five volumes and thousands of articles,indexed and categorized in an attempt to make thecumulative knowledge of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenmentavailable to the “masses”
pursuit of happiness
alongwith “liberty” (freedom to do as one wished, as long as it did not infringe upon the rights of others), the“pursuit of happiness” was considered a birthright of every individual human being – to pursue those things
Salons
thegatherings hosted by the wealthy ladies (“madams,” the female patrons of the philosophes) of France (particularly in Paris) whereconversations and intellectual exchanges / discourses would take place in the parlors and drawing rooms of private homes.
feminism
thebelief in the social, political and economic equality of women to men; socialand political activism to promote women’s rights.
Rococo
anartistic style in eighteenth-century Europe that grew out of the Baroque style,yet it was distinctive in that it emphasizedcurvature, lightness and charm, so that its emphasis was on pleasure of the senses and happiness.
high culture
the literary and artisticculture of the educated and ruling classes
popular culture
theculture (written and unwritten) of the masses, often passed down through oralhistory and tradition.
Nicholas Copernicus
Polish astrnomer who proposed a "heliocentric model of the universe," yet delayed the publication of his findings until the year of his death in 1543.
Tycho Brahe
Danish astronomer and mathematician who was something of an eccentric. He had lost part of his nose in a duel, and fashioned for himself a metal prosthetic nose made of an alloy containing gold
Johannes Kepler
German astronomer and mathematician who began his career as an assistant to Tycho Brahe. Using their calculations of the orbits of the known planets around the sun (heliocentric model), he concluded that the paths of these orbits was elliptcal, rather than circular as was initially believed.
Galileo Galilei
Italian astronomer who invented a new telescope for observing stars and planetary motion. He was the first to identify moons around Jupiter and the rings around Saturn, and concluded that the "heavenly bodies" were composed of the same sort of matter as found on Earth. He published his findings in The Starry Messenger
Sir Isaac Newton
his English scientist is considered the greatest genius of The Scientific Revolution. His greatest work was his Principia Mathematica in which he theorised the formula for gravitational force (E = m2 / d2) and the relationship between the gravitational attraction between two bodies and the square of the product of their masses divided by the square of the distance between them.
Sir Francis Bacon
English philosopher and politician who is one of the early pioneers of the "empirical method" of inquiry - that which may be discerned through the use of the five senses.
Rene Descartes
French philosophe who considered that everything in the universe could be divided or categorized into either "Physical" (tangible and observable matter) or "Metaphysical"
Voltaire
satirical writer and critic of organized religion, he is considered the greatest among the three French "giants" of the Enlightenment. He spent some time living in exile in England, and came to admire the British political system of constitutional government and monarchy.
Baron de Montesquieu
French philosophe and political theorist whose great work was the Spirit of the Laws (published in 1748), in which he advocated for the "separation of powers" of government into three distinct branches: Legislative; Executive; and Judicial
John Locke
English philisopher and political theorist. His "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" maintained that the mind, at birth, is a "tabula rasa" ("blank slate") and that all knowledge and understanding comes from our experiences. His landmark political work, entitled Two Treatises of Civil Government
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French philosophe and political theorist who published his most famous work The Social Contract in 1762, in which he argued against divine-right absolutist monarchy in favor of a government based upon popular political participation which reflected the "General Will" of society.
Adam Smith
Scottish political theorist who is considered the "Father of Modern Economics / Economic Theory." His landmark work was An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (or simply The Wealth of Nations) in which he descibed the basic tenets of a capitalist economic system.
Denis Diderot
French philosophe whose greatest accomplishment and "life's work" was the twenty-eight volume compilation of articles on all manner of knowledge of the arts, sciences, and philosophical disciplines.
Mary Wollstonecraft
this Englishwoman is considered by many historians to be one of the founders of the feminist movement