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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
bipolar world order
US and Soviet Union each form respective alliances around the world
US=free world
USSR=non-free world
Non-Aligned camp
not on US or USSR side- neutral
ex) India
but hard to be neutral b/c US and USSR said either with us or against us
arms race
war of weapons
(US had nuclear bomb)
but arms race keeps the peace b/c of M.A.D.
mutually assured destruction
if one country attacks, the other's defense combined will destroy it all
war by proxy
US and USSR using respective allies to fight against each other (they never actually fought against each other)
Potsdam Conference
new US president
nothing really accomplished there
still don't know what to do w/ Germany
hostility, not cooperation
Iron Curtain Speech
by Churchill
says there is a major permanent divide btw east and west of Europe (unfree and free)
Soviet Union in No. Iran
there b/c Iran=oil, some communists there
US wants Soviets to leave --> Soviets leave
Munich Analogy
Truman believed Soviet Union could not be appeased
US will set limits for the USSR
aggressive defense
US was going to contain communism where it was, stop its spreading, and if it did spread-->harsh measures taken
Truman Doctrine
Truman applies Containment
when US protects Greece from Communism
US commits to protect non-Communist regimes
revival of Comintern
Soviet Union creates it
reaction to Truman Doctrine
meeting of Communist powers around the world and plan to spread communism
Marshall Plan
US committing itself to rebuild Europe- great contribution
but US had alterior motives too
Jan Masaryk
leader of Czech
killed by Soviets-->Czech brought into Soviet movement (it was the only country in east. Europe that could have had a democracy)
leader of Yugoslavia
Post WWII= non-aligned even thought he was communist
Yugo=only communist nation that remained apart from Soivet Union
Berlin Airlift
after Berlin is divided and Soviets blockade Berlin
US flies planes over Berlin low and constantly drop supplies
Kim il Sung
leader of North Korea-communism
Sygmund Rhee
leader of south Korea- anti-commnism
Douglas MacArthur
US general aka "American Shogun"
Korean War- rushes over to S. Korea after North invades South
focused on Europe
Truman was euro-centric
MacArthur expels N. Korean forces from S. Korea
goes throught pusan
tensions btw Truman and MacArthur
-->Truman fires MacArthur- famous scandal
Chiang Kai-Chek
leader of Republic in China before Mao (communist) took over
flees to Thailand
US lad alliance of W. European States
western military bloc
"an attack on one of these countries was an attack on all"
-->Soviet Union forms Warsaw Pact (E. European states)
Red Scare
trial of Hiss
Hiss=FDR's buddy, went to Yalta, found guilty of being w/communists
Jews expelled from Israel by the Romans
the lands is renamed Palistina
Balfour Declaration
issued by British
realize Jews do need their own land, also bringing Jews to Palestine would help their interests, Jews hoped to get that land after the war
National Home
British and France have control over Middle east b/c of mandates
British start building gov. in Palestine
Palestine- mome and more Jews coming to this land
"A people w/o land are coming to a land w/o people"
(but Arabs already there)
Hebron riots
whole community of Jew killed when Arabs rebel (after Jews come into Palestine)
Peel commission report
Britain would give Jews a small sliver of land of Israel
(British trying to take action after Arabs rebelling to Jews coming in)
but Arabs still say no
white paper
issued by Britain
no more immigration of Jews to Palestine
worst time for Jews b/c during WWII and Hitler
leader of Jews
led the Haganah against the Irgun (right wing terrorists who wanted to fight the Brits)
defeats Irgun
El Nakba
Jews win war of indepence against Arabs, Arabs called it El Nakba= the disaster
Israeli Arabs
Arabs that still live in Israel are incorporated into the state
Armritsar Masscare
creates tensions when Indians rebel for more power/independence against Brits
Government of India Act
esentially Indians could take control of their own lives in the provincial area
-talks about slowly getting rid of the Rajj
(Brit sees they have to give India up)
leader of INC (along w/ Ghandi)
Muhammed Ali Jinnah
created Muslim league
seems to be losing power to INC (Hindus)
but doesn't give up
gains support of British during WWII (gives them troops)
Quit India Movement
led by INC
wants the British to leave India
British arrest all the INC leaders
INC doesn't help Brit in WWII
Direct Action
Muhammed Ali Jinnah calls out for Muslims to go out and kill Hindus
(had tried to negotiate w/INC for a separate Muslim state-Pakistan- but they say no)
last viceroy of India that tried to prepare India for smooth partition and independence
-sees there needs to be a partition
India split into:
Pakistan (Muslim)
Inda (Hindu)
distater partition
Sun-Yet Sen
new leader-promises to bring republic & nurturing to China
brings Kuomintang (nationalist party)
but not able to solve China's problems
defeats Chiang, leader of China
communist, supported by Soviets
kills a lot of people
used 5-year plans
but great leap forward fails
leader of Ghana, comes to power peacefully
Ghana=1st African nation to gain independence
Mau Mau and Kenyatta
violent groups (nationalists) in Kenya against Britain
succeeds Stalin
gives signs that USSR going to moderate/peaceful relations w/west
shuts down Gulag-work camps Stalin set up
Khrushchev's secret speech
speech that accused Stalin of being a criminal/intolerant- repudiated Stalin
-misinterpreted-sent signals to other countries that things would be loosened up a bit
Eisenhower, Nixon, Dulles
new policy- US would be more aggressive toward Soviet Union- to the brink of war
but turns out to be more talk than action
massive retaliation
Eisenhower, Nixon, Dulles also talk about it
the three 1956 crises
leader of Poland
anti-Soviet, but communist
wants to move away from USSR after K's secret speech
but K sends warnings not to
-->G says he will be loyal to Soviet Union
leader of Hungary
liberal communist
wants out of the Warsaw pact
what happened in Poland incites Hungary to do break away too
-->Soviets kill Nagy and put a new Soviet comm leader
leader of Egypt
not a comm, but hates the west
takes over Suez Canal
supports attacks against Israel by Palestinians
advocating unity of all arab countries
Palestinian guerilla fighters
Egypt encouraged them to attack Israel
United Arab Nation (republic)
proposed by Nasser
Syrians and Egypt combine
but does not last
shows Nasser's Pan-Arabist inclinations
satellite launched by Soviets
US feels Soviets became superior over the west technologically
Soviet Union shoots down this US spy plane
both clearly spying on each other
Khrus pissed- cancels Summit Meeting planned by Khrus and Eisenhower
revolution in Cuba
leader=Batista-overthrown by Fidel Castro
CIA plans to overthrow Castro
Bay of Pigs operation fails
but pushes Castro into alliance w/ Soviet Union
Bay of Pigs operation
US plan against Fidel Castro- Cuba
land cuban exiles in Cuba and rile up revolution against Castro
but US screws it up, Kennedy calls it off
Brain Drain
why Germans build Berlin wall
West Berling was free and ppl from east Germany would go over
Cuban Missile Crisis
US find out Soviets have missiles in Cuba pointing at US
US pissed- closest time US and USSR come to actually fighting
Khrus "blinked first"-->kicked out as Premier of USSR
Hot Line
result of Cuban missile crisis
US president and premier of Soviet Union have direct, immediate communication in case of danger
Nuclear test ban treaty
result of Cuban missile crisis
US and Soviet Union would stop testing nuclear weapons in atmosphere
Algeria and Kenya
did not get independence peacefully
Kenya vs. Brits
Algeria vs. French
separatist group in Nigeria
wanted to form a separate state w/in Nigeria= Biafra
had all the oil
independent state declared by IBO in Nigeria
its creation-->civil war
in the end, Biafra falls and reincorporated into Nigeria
Great Leap Forward
Mao's plan- wanted to improve peasant life, but disaster
overextended itself
Mao embarrssed and scared-->paranoia
Cultural Revolution
launched by Mao (China)
totally purge any resistance to Mao
killed millions of people
reignites revolutionary fervor in young generation
Red Guards
youth movement created by Mao- went out to look for anything Old China
but they took it to the extreme-Mao had to put it down
Mao was b/c totally opposite of communism
Pakistan split into:
East Pakistan (-->Bangladesh)
West Pakistan (Pakistan today)
India aids East Pakistan to gain independence
Ho Chi Minh
takes control over No. Vietnam
effective guerilla warfare
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
French were defeated by Ho Chi Minh
they were exhausted and withdrew from Vietnam
southern vietnamese communists who threatened non-communism of So. Vietnam (support by Ho)
Geneva Accords
17th parallel only temporary
free election in all of Vietnam to determine what a united Vietnam would look like
America rejected it b/c knew comm would win
Ngo Diem
brutal So. Vietnamese leader
builds ARVN to defeat Vietcong
oppressive and ineffective
Kennedy gets rid of him and brings someone else in
President Johnson
after Kennedy assassinated
chose to send more troops into Vietname to defeat Vietcong and No. Vietnam
Domino Theory
Domino Theory
Pres. Johnson
if So. Vietnam falls to comm, all the other nations in Southeast Asia would too
formed under Yassin Arafat
to liberated Palestine from Zionism
starts before Israel will conquer those territories
6 Day War
Israel defeats Egypt and Arabs
gets Gaza strip and Sinai from Egypt
gets Golan Heights from Syriagets east Jerusalem and West Bank from Jordan
Israel wins big!
Khartoum Conference
where Arab league meets (all Arabs come together)
after 6 Day War
Arabs even more angry
issues the 3 NO's
UN security Council Resolution 242
UN came up w/ formula for peace (after 6 Day War)
Israel returns occupied territories for peace (purposely left out the word "the")