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83 Cards in this Set

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an early negative-positive photographic process, patented by William Henry Talbot in 1841, in which a paper negative is produced and then used to make a positive contact print in sunlight.
Camera Lucida
an optical instrument, often attached to the eyepiece of a microscope, by which the image of an external object is projected on a sheet of paper or the like for tracing.
Camera Obscura
a darkened boxlike device in which images of external objects, received through an aperture, as with a convex lens, are exhibited in their natural colors on a surface arranged to receive them: used for sketching, exhibition purposes, etc.
an obsolete photographic process, invented in 1839, in which a picture made on a silver surface sensitized with iodine was developed by exposure to mercury vapor.
an early type of photograph, made by placing a glass negative against a dark background
A photographic picture of the size formerly in use for a visiting card.
used in the manufacture of photographic film, wet plate process where the film retains its sensitiveness only while wet. The film used in such plates is of collodion impregnated with bromides and iodides. Before exposure the plate is immersed in a solution of silver nitrate, and immediately after exposure it is developed and fixed.
A positive photograph made on a sensitized sheet of enameled iron or tin.
Timothy O'Sulllivan
Genre: War documentary, Westward Expansion

Photography employee of Mathew Brady until he worked for Gardner. Produced half of Civil War photo's in Gardner's sketchbook. Most famous: "Harvest of Death." Later photographed for geological survey of the west; saw the landscapes as terrifying.
Alexander Gardner
Genre: War documentary

Photographs of the American Civil War, Linoln, and the execution of the conspirators to Lincoln's assassination
Carleton Watkins
Genre: Westward Expansion, Documentary, Landscapes

CA landscape, Yosemite Stereoviews. Also Oregon. Bad business man, not credited
Eadweard Muybridge
Genres: Landscape, Snapshots, Documentary (by accident)

-used multiple cameras to capture motion (horses experiment). -invented zoopraxiscope that projected pictures in motion.
-Used mammoth camera and went to great lengths to capture Yosemite.
3 things
George, Eastmen
Eastman, George, 1854-1932, American inventor, industrialist, and philanthropist, b. Waterville, N.Y. By mass production of his photographic inventions, Eastman enormously stimulated the development of photography as a popular hobby. He invented a dry-plate process and established (1880) a factory at Rochester, N.Y., for making the plates; he devised a roll film and the Kodak camera (1888) to use it, as well as a process for color photography (1928). In 1932 after a long illness Eastman committed suicide.
A snap shot is a shot that is aimed and fired very quickly at a target that appears suddenly and for a very short period of time. Created the amateur photographer. Could capture motion. Spontaneous, decisive moment.
sought to differentiate their artistic work from amateurs' snapshots. They altered their images by hand scratching the negatives and using brushes to soften and blur parts of the photographs during the printing process. The Pictorialist's main concern was not their subjects but, rather, to ensure photography was a viable art form.
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre
Genre: Portrait

Invented Daguerreotype. Competed with Talbot in England and his Calotype
an association of photographers founded in New York City in 1902 by Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen that advocated the development and public recognition of photography as a fine art.
any of various processes, based on photography, by which an intaglio engraving is formed on a metal plate, from which ink reproductions are made.
The Little Galleries
The Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession (later known as 291) was a tiny fine art photography gallery in New York City created and run by Alfred Stieglitz and Edward Steichen from November 1905 to 1917.
William Henry Fox Talbot
Genre: Documentary

Inventor of the negative / positive photographic process. Inventor of the calotype on paper (first called photogenic drawings).
Oscar Gustve Rejlander
Genre: Pictorial

Abandoned painting to make allegorical combination photos. "Two Ways of Life" most famous/controversial picture. Also accidentally made double exposures.
Genre: Portrait

1st aerial photographer. Journalist and balloonist. Sitters were famous, commercially successful. Versatile and theatrical (changed the stoic sitter).
Roger Fenton
Genre: War documentary

Outdoor photographer. British, Crimean War, mobile caravan as darkroom studio. Meant to create propaganda. Continued to photograph wars around the world.
Matthew Brady
Genre: War documentary

First to document civil war. At first employed Gardner and O'Sullivan, but left due to lack of credit. Mastered colloidal process.
Henry Peach Robinson
Genre: Pictorial

"King of Picture Making." Made photocombinations. "Fading Away," controversial subject matter of death in aristocratic homes using models.
Julia Margaret Cameron
Genre: Portrait, Pictorial

Ametuer. Hobby at 48. Uninhibited by any particular goal. Close friends with Darwin and Herschel. Soft focus portraits often based on poetry characters in writing. Dreamlike, ethereal quality.
Jacques-Henri Lartigue
Genre: Snapshot, Surrealist (by accident)

Child photographer, upper class Paris. Had a childish and refreshing spirit to his pictures. Discovered in 1960's.
Alfred Stieglitz
Genre: Pictorial, Impressionist, Modernist, Dadaist, Cubist, Equivalent (abstract)

Crucial to photography as an accepted art form, pictorialism, and later modernism. Editor of Camera Notes and later Camera Work. Founder of Photo-Succession, and the gallery 291 in NY. Began with industrial change. Later modernist photos of a naked Georgia O'Keeffe (future wife, artist). Abstract "Equivalent." Gallery showed rejected modernist European art like that of the Armory show.
"I wanted to photograph clouds to find out what I had learned in forty years about photography. Through clouds to put down my philosophy of life – to show that (the success of) my photographs (was) not due to subject matter – not to special trees or faces, or interiors, to special privileges – clouds were there for everyone…"
Gertrude Kasebier
Genre: Pictorial

Member of Photo-Succession. Later founder of Pictorial Photographers of America (when Stieglitz went modern). Pictured domestic scenes.
Edward Jean Steichen
Genre: Pictorial, Fashion, Strait

Founding member of Photo-Succession (with Stieglitz). Elected to Linked Ring in London. Extensively published. Later did fashion photos, aerial photos for army, leading to a fallout with Stieglitz who despised sellouts. Began as Pictorialist and after the war reverted to strait photography.
Paul Strand
Genre: Pictorial, Modern

During photography class by Lewis Hine, visited 291, met Stieglitz who encouraged cubist and pictorialist pictures. Final issue of Camera Work had his work moving from pictorialism to modernism.
Man Ray
Genre: Dada, Abstract, Modern

-NY Dadaist.
-Invented "Rayographs." Significant painter, filmmaker, and sculptor.
- Later joined surrealist movement. -Discovered the sabattier effect (solarization) which created partial reversal.
4 significant things
Laszlo Moholy Nagy
Genre: Modern, Constructivist, Supremist, Surrealist, Abstract

Re inventor of the photogram. Constructivist. Bauhaus trained in Germany. Later reopened in Chicago. Abstract form. Surrealist. His montages were "fotoplastiks." Author of New Vision. Non eye level points a view, geometric shapes, anti-perspective.
Lewis Hine
Genre: Documentary, Social

Paul Strand's teacher. Social reform photographer. Child Labor, crippled, intimate. Red Cross worker.
Dorthea Lange
Genre: Documentary, Social

Photographer, traveler, FSA funded. WWII documented Japanese internment camps. Migrant workers of California, Most famous: "migrant mother."
Walker Evans
Genre: Documentary, Social

Alabama projected published in book with writings from James Agee. FSA. Beauty of the vernacular. Later subway work, hidden camera. Fortune magazine in 40's.
Hannah Hoch
Genre: Dada

Not necessarily seamless photo-montage. Modernist. Feminist. Collage with a revolutionary political discourse message.
Aleksander Rodchenko
Genre: Suprematism, Constructivist

Suprematism background "the supremacy of pure feeling." Photo-montage. Bauhaus student. "Constructivism," coined from critique of his photograph.
Edward Weston
Genre: Portrait, Pictorial (former), Strait, Landscape, Modern, Abstract

Student of Illonois college of photography. Sucessful portrait studio in Glendale, CA. Soft focus pictorialist turned modernist. Met the NY crew. Believed that the subject matter was unimportant, the form was more: toilet bowl, peppers. Relationship with Tina Modotti in Mexico. Charis Wilson relationship for Eloquent nude. Guggenheim fellowship to picture western landscapes.
Ansel Adams
Genre: Landscape, Strait, Abstract, Modern

Sierra Club. Landscape photographer. Developed the Zone System, previsulization. Didn't believe in photo manipulation (except tone). Strait. F/64 member.
Jacob A. Riis
Genre: Documentary, Social
Realism, Objective

Grew up homeless. Police photographer, objective style, exposing the horrid conditions of impoverished NY citizens. Not an artist. Used dangerous magnesium for flash effect, often entering homes without permission in the middle of the night. Social reformation. Beginning of documentary, journalism photo.
Andre Kertesz
Genre: Modernist, Surrealist, Snapshot

Lecia, handheld spirit. Asymmetrical, close-ups, distortions, grainy compositions, unusual points of view.
Henri Cartier-Bresson
Genre: Cubist (former), Modernist, Surrealist, Snapshot

Father of "The decisive moment." Lecia, handheld spirit. Surrealist who studied cubist painting. Formed Magnum Photos, the first cooperative photographic agency.
Albumen print
A photographic printing process using egg whites in the emulsion.
Gelatin-silver process
Current black and white films and printing papers. Dry plate. Stable for months or years, unlike the wet plate. Invented by Maddox 1871.
Early process where exquisite colored prints are made by printing paper coated with sensitized and pigmented gum arabic.
Old and currently popular method using a simple box without a lens, tiny hole, and sheet of film pinned opposite of hole, inside. Produces unique perspective and dreamy focus.
Present the world under an utterly subjective perspective, violently distorting it to obtain an emotional effect and vividly transmit personal moods and ideas .Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning of "being alive" and emotional experience rather than physical reality.
Rejects metaphysics. Confines intellectual inquiry to observable facts and their relations. Disregarding philosophy.
admired speed, technology, youth and violence, the car, the airplane and the industrial city, all that represented the technological triumph of humanity over nature, and they were passionate nationalists. Dismissed art critics as useless, rebelled against harmony and good taste, swept away all the themes and subjects of all previous art, and gloried in science.
Rejected the idea of "art for art's sake" in favor of art as a practice directed towards social purposes. Total abstraction and an acceptance of everything modern. Geometric, experimental, rarely emotional. Objective forms and icons were used over the subjective or the individual. Simple and reduced, paring the artwork down to its basic elements. (Alexander Rodchenko, Moholy-Nagy)
To ridicule what was considered to be the meaninglessness of the modern world. Anti-war, anti-bourgeois, anarchistic. Groundwork to abstract art. Anti-art. Reject logic and embrace chaos and irrationality. Destroy traditional culture and aesthetics. (Hannah Hoch, Man Ray)
The element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions, free association, dream analysis, the hidden unconscious, liberate imagination. The absence of all control and reason, outside of all aesthetic and moral preoccupation. (Bresson, Lartigue, Kertesz)
The depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. In revealing a truth, may emphasize the ugly or sordid. Undistorted by personal bias, objective reality and revolted against exaggerated emotionalism. Truth and accuracy.
Pioneered by Pablo Picasso. objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form. Multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Surfaces intersect at random angles, removing a coherent sense of depth. The background and object planes interpenetrate one another to create the shallow ambiguous space, one of cubism's distinct characteristics.
Fundamental geometric forms (in particular the square and circle). Abstract. (Rodchenko)
The name of the movement is derived from the title of a Claude Monet work, “Impression, Sunrise.” visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
founded with the idea of creating a 'total' work of art in which all arts, including architecture would eventually be brought together. art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function. Modernist and Constructivist architecture.
Strait Photography
attempts to depict a scene as realistically and objectively as permitted by the medium, renouncing the use of manipulation. (F/64)
F 64
Advocates of strait photography. San Francisco photographers; sharp-focused, carefully framed images, Western viewpoint. In part, they formed in opposition to the Pictorialists. Wanted to promote a new Modernist aesthetic, images of natural forms and found objects. (Ansel Adams and Edward Weston)
Zone system
a photographic technique for determining optimal film exposure and development, (tone), a systematic method of precisely defining the relationship between the way they visualize the photographic subject and the final results. (Ansel Adams)
“the decisive moment”
"Photography is not like painting," "There is a creative fraction of a second when you are taking a picture. Your eye must see a composition or an expression that life itself offers you, and you must know with intuition when to click the camera. That is the moment the photographer is creative," he said. "Oop! The Moment! Once you miss it, it is gone forever."" (Henri Cartier Bresson)
Art in which traditions have been tossed aside in spirit of experimentation. New ways of seeing and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. Abstraction.
New Instrument of Vision (By Laszlo Moholy Nagy)

-The unique quality of photography:
Dematerialization, which is the photogram
New Instrument of Vision (By Laszlo Moholy Nagy)

-The optical quality:
variations in tone, previously unattainable
New Instrument of Vision (By Laszlo Moholy Nagy)

-Improved performance:
lens is an extension of eyesight, sharpness, accuracy, new powers of observation in terms of time and space (snapshots, magnification)
New Instrument of Vision (By Laszlo Moholy Nagy)

-The eight varieties of photographic vision:
-Abstract seeing (photogram)
-Exact seeing (reportage)
-Rapid seeing (snapshots)
-Slow seeing (prolonged time exposures)
-Intensified seeing (infrared)
-Penetrative seeing (x-ray)
-Simultaneous seeing (photomontage)
-Distorted seeing (prisms, mirrors, mechanical and chemical manipulation)
New Instrument of Vision (By Laszlo Moholy Nagy)

- The new vision:
Whether photography produces art or not is unimportant. It’s own laws, not opinions, measure worth. Splendid details of structure and texture of whatever objects we choose.
New Instrument of Vision (By Laszlo Moholy Nagy)

-The new experience of space:
Humanity has acquired the power to see its surroundings, its existence, with new eyes
Seeing Photographically (by Edward Weston)

-Subject matter and composition:
Photography is honest, it exposes the contrived, the artificial, the trivial. The subject can be seen through the lens with such clear insight that the beholder may find the recreated image more real and comprehensible that the actual object. Do not consult the contemporary rules of composition (photo-painters).
Seeing Photographically (by Edward Weston)

-Recording the image:
-The finished product must be created before exposure (previsualization) otherwise it will represent lucky, or unlucky, mechanical accidents.
-The photographer must learn the capacities of the tools he possesses.
2 things
Seeing Photographically (by Edward Weston)

-Nature of the image:
Photography has an amazing precision of (definition) and fine detail, unbroken sequence of infinitely subtle gradations from black to white (tone). The integrity of the photography is destroyed by handwork.
Seeing Photographically (by Edward Weston)

-Nature of the recording process:
Photography is unique because of it’s instantaneousness. An extension of the eye.
Seeing Photographically (by Edward Weston)

-The Photo-Painting standard:
-This false standard was established, which made the goal photo-painting rather than photography.
-Horrors of the past were allegorical and blurry.
-The best photos of the past were from people who were not artists: daguerreotype portraits, Civil War. -Pictorialists believe that the strait photograph is a product of a machine, and therefore not art.
4 things
Beauty in the vernacular
Objects that are common tend to be overlooked because we see them so often. Using a camera to freeze it in time has led us to dissect it carefully, rather than pass by it so obliviously. This allows us to see the beauty in something we otherwise would have no idea was beautiful. It has also contributed to the movement of art, and expanded upon its creativity. Why must only angelical or allegorical scenes be art, or be considered beautiful, when this pen for example, can hold just as much beauty if pictured from a particular angle or in a particular light, as all of Michelangelo’s work combined? Who’s to stop us? This movement has led us to a more open minded capability of what art is and what art could be.
“On Photography” (by Charles Baudelaire)

Photography is:
-Not art, and could never be because of it’s exactitude.
-A cheap method for disseminating painting and the art of the actor.
-For the lazy artist
-Contributed to the diminishment of the French artistic genius
-A science, and should be used by tourists, naturalists, and the astronomer
-A function of progress, and art is it’s mortal enemy
-Can’t express the beauty of dreams
7 things
Early photography: historic events pictured
- Famous persons (Harriet Beecher Stowe, Fredrick Douglas, the Royal family, Abe Lincoln)
- The moon
- Mission Heliographiques: Team of photographers sent out to record the diminishing historical monuments of France (castles, forts, cathedrals)
- The “other,” from various cultures (Native Americans, Asians, indigenous tribes)
- The Civil War
- The execution of Lincoln’s assinators
- The Crimean war
- Various wars around the world
- Monuments and landscapes from around the world (Egyptian, The Nile, Jerusalem, Rome, the Alps)
- Westward expansion (Yosemite, Oregon, Idaho)
10 things
The relationship between photography and fine art
Photographic Impressionism and Pictorialism- texture of paper, scratches on negative to appear like brush strokes, allegorical scenes, photomontage scene creations, blur, portraiture
The impact of the Kodak on photographer and the subject:
-Now that anyone could get a camera, amateur photography was born, otherwise called the “snapshooter.”

-Keepsakes, family albums were created, for the sake of memorial events.
-The vernacular is pictured.
-Action shots now capable. -Professional portrait studios declined in business.
-Photographic clubs and schools created.
-Amateurs photographing subjects without permission, creating societal discourse.
7 things
Modernism aesthetic between the wars and art movements in


Photographers: Hannah Hoch

Technique: Photomontage, collage

Modernist aesthetic: Symbolic, political, anti-art, chaotic, anti-tradition, free association

Political orientation: anti-war, communist sympathies post WWI, anti-racial discrimination, feminist
-Expressionism 1900, popular 1920
-WWI 1914-1918
-Dada 1916-1922
-Weimar period 1920-1933
Modernism aesthetic between the wars and art movements in


Photographers: Man Ray, Henri-Cartier Bresson, André Kertész, Jaques-Henri Lartique

Modernist aesthetic: Abstract, anti-art, chaotic, anti-tradition / spontaneity, juxtapositions, free association, imaginative, uncontrolled

Technique: Rayograph, photomontage, solarization, snapshot

Political orientation: anti-war, anti-bourgeois, anarchistic, excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the terrifying conflict upon the world.
-WWI 1914-1918
-Dada 1916-1922
-Surrealism 1920
Modernism aesthetic between the wars and art movements in


Photographers: Alexander Rodchenko, László Moholy-Nagy (Hungarian)

Technique: Photomontage, odd angles

Modernist aesthetic: Geometric, simple, abstract

Political orientation: official policy prohibited abstraction and divergence of artistic expression.
-WWI 1914-1918
-Suprematisim 1915-1916
-Russian civil war: 1917-1922
-Constructivism 1919-1934
Issues presented in documentary photography
-Poverty, poor living conditions, crippled, orphans, street life, hunger
-Child labor
-Poor working conditions of migrant farm workers (FSA)
-Great depression
4 things