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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Both the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia broke apart due to
Ethnic tension and economic collapse
Ethnic groups in the Soviet Union and in the former Yugoslavia called for independence. While the Soviet Union collapsed peaceably, in Yugoslavia
ethnic tensions erupted into war; as Serbs attempted genocide against the Muslim Bosnians.
The democracy movement in China
brutally repressed by government as in Tiananmen Square; focused mostly on economic democracy
What sparked economic reforms in China?
failure of Mao's agrarian based economic approach
What were the hardest challenges facing democratic movements?
communist ideology; military dictatorships; authoritarian rule with no due process
Deng Xiaoping’s presidency
In 1976, Deng emerged as China's paramount leader, and set the People's Republic on a course of reform and liberalization.
Government attacks on student demonstrations in Tiananmen Square began ....
.... a massive campaign to eliminate protest in China.
Name four common democratic practices.
free elections; representative constitutional government; citizen participation; majority rule, minority rights
What group held up democratic progress in both Argentina and Brazil?
mainly military; but also landowners and industrialist
What brought about the civil war in Nigeria?
Biafra oil, and ethnic rivalries
Name three significant steps towards democracy taken by South Africa in the 1990s.
end of apartheid, one person one vote; free elections
What were the main reforms promoted by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev?
glasnost, perestroika
Which Eastern European nations overthrew Communist governments in 1989?
Poland, Czechoslovakia, Russia, Hungary
What was the August Coup in Russia and how did it end?
Hardliners detained (No Suggestions), that sets off demonstrations; Army refused to fire on protestors; attempted coup fails
What led to the breakup of Yugoslavia?
death of strongman Tito; ethnic conflict
What changes took place in China during the 1970s?
great leap forward; cultural revolution; economic reforms
How did the Chinese government react to demands for democratic reform?
army attacked protestors
PRI - Mexico
Mexico became multi political party country; PRI lost first election in 75 years;
forced separation of races; make one race legally superior to another
Nelson Mandela
African freedom fighter, imprisoned for 28 years by racist regime; first President elected in free election in South Africa
Mikhail Gorbachev
Russian Communist Party leader promoted friendlier relations with Capitalist West - Glasnost, Perestroika, Détente
Gorbachev realized economic and social reforms depended on the free exchange of ideas and information. Glasnost was intended to encourage discussion of ways to improve society.
Lech Walesa
Polish labor leader of revolt against communist rule in Poland
Deng Xiaoping
moderate economic policies, some capitalist methods, ended communes
Tiananmen Square
Place where Chinese military cracked down on students democracy reform protests.
Economic reform in Soviet Union that used some capitalist/free market techniques.
land reform in Brazil and other parts of Latin America
struggle between landowners and peasants is holding back democratic reforms
Standard of Living
level of daily services, goods, and activities available to or enjoyed by a group or community of people to satisfy human needs.
Downtown in economy: lower employment levels, no growth in GNP
Federal System
System where individual entities in a whole have a certain amount of authority and autonomy.
Martial Law
suspension of many individual rights, especially assembly and due p[recess of law. Usually invoked in time of war or crisis to protect public safety; many times used by authoritarian regimes to control the populace.
opponent of current government
central guiding / ruling committee of communist party; usually runs government as well.
reuniting of political entities after voluntary or forced separation.
ethnic cleansing
political correct expression for genocide; persecution of a group of people because we o of their ethnicity or religion: such as in Africa (Hutus v Tutsi) and Balkans (Serbs v Bosnians)
What is definition of democracy?
Government controlled by its citizens, directly or through representatives
What is required for Democracy to function properly?
1.Free & fair elections; 2.More than ONE political party; 3.Good education; 4.Common culture; 5.Everyone has equal rights; 6.Rule by law, not power
Poland fought for free elections
voted for Democracy
1990, Germany
reunited under democracy
1993, Czechoslovakia split
into Czech Republic & Slovakia, both democracies
Romania, overthrew dictator
free elections in 1990
Yugoslavia-8 ethnic groups, 6 rep
China under Mao Zedong
economic disaster
Deng in 1976 with the Four Modernizations: Progress in
Agriculture; Industry; Defense; Science & Technology / More private businesses, becoming world economic power
How did Deng accomplish the improvement in productivity?
Offered incentives to work harder
Tiananmen Square Massacre
1989, College students, Influence by western ideas, protested in Beijing
What was Chinese government reaction to Tiananmen protest
called in troops; Fired into the crowd, killed hundreds
South Africa
Country occupies the southern tip of African continent; infamously known for its racial separation methodology called apartheid
Nelson Mandela
African freedom fighter, imprisoned for 28 years by racist regime; first President elected in free election in South Africa
African National Congress - anti apartheid political party
Why would it be inefficient for the central government to decide what should be produced all over the country?
Can't know what people want to buy and at what price.
What did Gdansk shipyard workers do in 1988?and why?
Went on strike demanded government recognition for their union, Solidarity. Popular support forced government to give in.
1988 workers walked off their jobs demanding raises; as economy worsened the Polish government...
....legalized Solidarity, and agreed to hold first free election since the Communist took power; where they were defeated and Solidarity candidate, Lech Walesa was elected.
1989 Hungary Communist party radicals....
..took over communist party and dissolved it. Year later non-communist won control of parliament.
How did the fall of communism in Hungary contribute to turmoil in East Germany?
Hungary allowed East German 'tourist' to continue on to Austria this escape route and subsequent border closing by East Germany publicized discontent and demonstrations spread.
Boris Yeltsin
1990-1999 President of Russia
What was the major caused of the unrest in 1990 Soviet Union.
Lack of economic progress; and the call for self determination by the 100s of ethnics groups that made up the Soviet Union.
Gorbachev & Yeltsin
Yeltsin was Gorbachev protégée - selected by Gorbachev to be Mayor of Moscow in 1985.
August 1991 Coup - End of Soviet Union
Army refused Communist Party's State Committee's orders to attack parliament. Coup sparked anger against Communist party. Parliament voted to stop all party activates. Gorbachev resigned. Other countries followed suit and stopped their Parties activities as well.
Yugoslavia had been held together by Marshall Tito since 1945-1980, what happen after his death?
Yugoslavia falls apart; various ethnic enclaves declared independence; Serbian-led army invaded runaway republics but was unable to prevent independence. 1995 UN brokered peace signed Bosnia, Sarnia, Croatia and Slovenia.
Kosovo 1998
ethnic Albanians demanded independence, Serb army moved in; after reports of atrocities, UN bombed Serbs until thy retreated
Poland votes out Walesa
Shock therapy (abrupt shift from command to market economy) improved economy but not at fast enough for some of the electorate; Walesa out former communist now capitalist Kwasniewski voted in. Shock therapy continued
Czechoslovakia breaks up peacefully into...
...Czech republic and Slovakia because of inability to agree on economic policy
Shock Therapy 1991-1999
Swift change to market economy by lowering trade barriers, removed price controls, end subsidies to state-owned-industries.
Chechnya Rebels 1991
Declared its independence but Yeltsin denied right to secede, peace negotiated in 1996 soon broken war resume - Put down by new President Putin in 1999
Mao's Five year plan 1 (1953-1957)
15% growth in industry, not much in Agriculture
Mao's Five year plan 2 - Great leap forward (1958-1962)
Economic disaster industry declines, food shortages, Mao lost influence
Mao's Five year plan 3 - Cultural revolution (1966-1976)
Mao encouraged purges of reform minded communist, forced people into communes; created economic, social, and political chaos; moderated increasingly opposed radicals
Zhou Inlay 1970s
Thaw with US, end of China's isolation;
What was the ultimate result of Mao's radical Communist policies? Why?
started slowly and got worse; no modern technology; moa removed all incentives to work including family with his commune programs
Fredrik Willem De Klerk
President of South Africa 1989-1994 that negotiated free elections leading to selection of Nelson Mandela to replace him
18 years of progress towards democracy 1983-2000
"1983 Argentina 1st free elections in 37 years;
Some of democracy's setbacks 1983-2000
"1983 military overthrows government;
4 modernizations in China 1980s
A/I/D/S&T; food production increased 50%; living standard increased; and request for democracy increased but were turned aside-Tiananmen Square.
Hong Kong
British colony and business center in Asia returned to China in 1997 as called for in treaty of Nanjing (1842). An unequal treaty between Great Britain and China resulting from the Opium War. The treaty stated that China was to reimburse Britain for costs incurred fighting the war. The Chinese were forced to open several ports to British trade, provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong, and grant extraterritoriality to British citizens living in China.
18 years of progress towards democracy 1983-2000
"1983 Argentina 1st free elections in 37 years; 1985 Brazil elects civilian government; 1986 Soviets begin economic and political reforms; 1989: Solidarity, Berlin wall down, Hungary disbands communist, Czech holds free elections, Romania overthrows dictator;
1990s More progress towards democracy
1991 Soviets peacefully transition to 15 republics; 1996 South Africa adopts anti apartheid stance; new constitution; 1999 Nigeria free elections; 2000 Mexico ends 71 years of PRI rule."
Some of democracy's setbacks 1983-2000
"1983 military overthrows government; 1989 China government massacres protesters; 1991 ethnic conflicts Yugoslavia; 1993 Yeltsin orders attack on demonstrators in parliament bldg"