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51 Cards in this Set

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Fifteenth Amendment
Forbade states to deny citizens the right to vote on the grounds of race, color, or “previous condition of servitude.” 1870.
Eighteenth Amendment
Forbade alcohol, the prohibition amendment. No making, importing, or selling of alcohol in the United States. 1919.
Nineteenth Amendment
The right to vote given to women. 1920.
Black Codes
Laws passed by southern states after the Civil War denying ex-slaves the civil rights enjoyed by whites and intended to force blacks back to the plantations.
Congressional ("Radical") Reconstruction
Reconstruction Act of 1867. The South was a conquered land and was divided into 5 military districts each under the command of a union general. In order to reenter the Union the vote must be granted to the freedmen and those of the South’s prewar leadership class involved must be disfranchised. Also states had to rewrite their constitutions and approve the 14th amendment. Johnson vetoed this, but congress overrode his veto.
A derisive name given by Southerners to Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction. Former Confederates despised these Northerners as transient exploiters. Carpetbaggers actually were a varied group, including Union veterans who had served in the South, reformers eager to help the ex-saves, and others looking for business opportunities.
A legal form of organization that enabled private capital to be raised in prodigious amounts. They could borrow money by issuing interest-bearing bonds to their investors. Investors who bought stock in the railroads enjoyed limited liability in which they risked only the money they had invested and were not personally liable for the railroad’s debts.
Scientific Management
A system of organizing work, developed by Frederick W. Taylor in the late 19th century, designed to get the maximum output from the individual worker and reduce the cost of production, using methods such as the time-and-motion study to determine how factory work should be organized. The system was never applied in its totality in any industry, but it contributed to the rise of the efficiency expert” and the field of industrial psychology.
Collective Bargaining
A process of negotiation between labor unions and employers, particularly favored by the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Led by Samuel Gompers, The AFL accepted the new industrial order, but fought for a bigger share of the profits for the workers.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Passed in 1890, it protected the common-law right of anyone injured by monopoly or illegal restraint of trade to sue for damages.
Andrew Carnegie
An iron maker and former railroad manager, Carnegie is a classic “rags to riches” story and used vertical integration to gain power and start the “monopoly” of U.S. Steel. He was the owner of the Homestead plant that resulted in the deadly Homestead Strike.
John D. Rockefeller
Combined vertical and horizontal integration to own Standard Oil in the petroleum industry. He owned the biggest monopoly and was brought to court for it.
Haymarket Affair/Riot
May 4, 1886 peaceful protest rally in Haymarket Square Chicago. Bomb went off then shots were fired and 2 dead and many wounded. 8 anarchists/labor ldrs were tried and convicted to death (4 hung, 1 committed suicide, 3 pardoned). This divided and demoralized the labor movement and turned many mid-class ppl against unions. “Anarchism” became code for terrorism and violence and linked to unions. Emboldened capitalists stepped up their resistance to the labor mvt. Knights of Labor decline b/c they were associated with it.
Homestead Strike
Andrew Carnegie’s steel plant in Homestead, PA. Carnegie leaves Frick in charge with orders to break the union while he goes to Scotland. Frick closes the plant to union workers and brings in Scab workers instead. The Pinkerton police are called in and a battle breaks out between the ppl and Pinkertons ending with Pinkertons surrendering and many dead and having the federal troops occupy the town and non-union workers going to work. This was a typical defeat suffered by the labor mvt and victory of industrialists in 1890. The union became associated with radicalism.
Sometimes referred to as "producer radicalism," refers to a syncretic ideology of populist economic nationalism which holds that the productive forces of society - the ordinary worker, the small businessman, and the entrepreneur, are being held back by parasitical elements at both the top and bottom of the social structure.
Political Machines
19th century term for highly organized groups operating within and intending to control political parties. Machines were regarded as antidemocratic by political reformers and were the target especially of Progressive era ldrs such as Robert La Follette. The direct primary was the favored anti-machine instrument b/c it made the selection of party candidates the product of a popular ballot rather than conventions that were susceptible to machine control.
Frederick Jackson Turner
In an 1893 landmark essay setting out the thesis of Manifest Destiny, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” he suggested a link between the closing of the frontier and overseas expansion and outward expansion, which he ended up being correct about.
Homestead Act
Federal government gave new comers 160 acres of land each if they would live on it for 5 years or could buy it for $1.65 an acre if they lived on it for 6 months. However, there were Native Americans who really owned the lands plus not all the land was good land. All the good land was taken up by the Railroads and land speculators. 1862.
African Americans who left the South after the end of Reconstruction-exodus to a new haven. About ½ million went west of the Mississippi River. In 1879, 6,000 arrived in Kansas. They consisted of about ¼ of Texas cowboys. White Southerners were unhappy with this and attempts were made to make them stop. It died out in the early 1880s because they didn’t have enough resources to make it anywhere else.
Chinese Exclusion Act
The Chinese became the target of racism over the blacks in the West. In 1882 congress passed this banning any further entry of Chinese into the country.
Taking the vote away from a group of people. In the mid and late 19th century disenfranchisement fell on the blacks. State constitutional conventions between 1890 and 1908 tried to disenfranchise the black man. Methods used included literacy tests, poll taxes, “understanding clause,” and the grandfather clause. The impact was widespread and ended up disenfranchising many poor whites as well as blacks and voting went way down.
Plessey v Ferguson
Homer Plessey refused to sit in “Jim Crow” car and tried to use the 14th amendment of equal treatment in court. Supreme Court stated it “separate but equal” by a 7-1 vote against Plessey. Northern segregation “defacto” in spite of state laws prohibiting racial discrimination.
Populist Movement
Established in 1891, The Populist Party (People’s Party) was a political movement and philosophy. They emphasized the “common man,” underdogs, working class, and the non-elites. They had “grass roots” democracy working from the ground up on problems. They passed farmer-friendly legislation, elected congressmen and legislators who promised to take axn, and were the first public funding of women’s higher education in the South. They tried to portray themselves as being the “truest patriots” and doing/being what G.W, T.J, and Abe Lincoln wanted and were.
William Jennings Bryan
Nominated for president three times for the Democratic candidate as well as the Populists in 1896. He was very religious and very pro-silver. He urged tougher antitrust legislation, stricter railway regulation, and advanced labor legislation. He never became president. He was the prosecuting lawyer in the Scopes Trial.
Ida B. Wells
Was part of the “rising class” of professional blacks. In 1184 had dispute over her 1st class train ticket and her being black therefore not allowed to sit in first class. She was a journalist and activist, especially against lynching. She investigated the lynching of the three store owners (her friends) and made public accusations. Also wrote and editorial on the consent of white women and black men’s sexual relationships. She escapes out of Memphis and to the North after the editorial and began pressuring congress for anti-lynching legislation.
Knights of Labor
Founded in 1869. Terence V. Powderly leader in 1879 and defined them as new and different. They had a very broad and radical vision about land redistribution, worker education, temperance, and abolition of the wage-labor system in place-wanted a producer-based system. They had a very inclusive nature-accepted skilled and unskilled, women, African-Americans, etc, except the Chinese. Were blamed for Haymarket bombing.
American Federation of Labor
Formed by trade unions when Knights had become too big and annoying. Founded in 1886. Were mostly skilled white craftsmen. Samuel Gompers was the president. Consisted of “Bread and Butter” issues-wages, hours, work conditions-weren’t very broad minded. They wanted a bigger slice of the American pie for workers.
Kate Richards O'Hare
Was part of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union and the socialist party of America. She thought the US should be neutral in WWI, and even went to prison for 5 years for making an anti-war speech in North Dakota. When in prison she wrote 2 books-Kate O’Hare’s Prison Letters (1919) and In Prison (1920).
Sedition and Espionage Acts
The Sedition Act of 1918 focused on disloyal speech, writing, and behavior that might “incite, provoke, or encourage resistance to the United States, or to promote the cause of its enemies.” The Espionage Act of 1917 imposed stiff penalties for antiwar activities and allowed the federal government to ban treasonous materials from the mails-the postmaster general revoked the mailing privileges of groups considered to be radical, virtually shutting down their publications. Created a censorship board.
Social Darwinism
The application of Charles Darwin’s biological theory of evolution by natural selection to the development of society, this late 19th century principle encouraged the notion that societies progress as a result of competition and the “survival of the fittest.” Intervention by the state in this process was counterproductive b/c it impeded healthy progress. Social Darwinists justified the increasing inequality of late 19th century, industrial American society as natural.
Journalists in the early 20th century whose stock-in-trade was exposure of the corruption of big business and government. Theodore Roosevelt gave them the name as a term of reproach, comes from a character in Pilgrim’s Progress, a religious allegory by Johns Bunyan.
Doctrine of "Separate Spheres"
Term used by historians to describe the 19th century view that men and women had different gender-defined characteristics and that, consequently, the sexes inhabited-and should inhabit- different social worlds, with men in the public sphere of politics and economics and women in the private sphere of home and family. In mid 19th century this cultural understanding was sharply defined and hotly contested.
Was an ambivalent response to female freedom and efforts to achieve gender equality. They were out at night, had bobbed hair, smoked, drank, wore make-up, went dancing with or without men, knew how to have fun with men, showed legs, and de-emphasized differences between men and women. The “new woman” of the early 20th century; instead of corsets, they wore breast binders and girdles to straighten body.
"8 hrs for work, 8 hrs for rest, and 8 hrs for what we will"
Saying of workers protesting for an 8 hour work day. They wanted to work 8 hour shifts a day, have 8 hours in the day to sleep, and have 8 hours a day for leisure time. Earlier leisure time had been worked into the work day, but then leisure time activities began to develop like dance halls, movies, parks, amusement parks, etc…
Spainish-American War
There was sympathy for the Cuban revolutionaries fighting for independence from Spain, so McKinley pressured Spain to make reforms or else, but they didn’t. Then the US Battleship Maine blew up in February 1898 and an ultimatum was given to Spain and then a declaration of war on Spain. The Spanish surrendered on July 17, 1898. Cuba became a protectorate, not territory of America, where they could set up own government and we would help and have a base there in case they needed us and so we could keep a watch on them.
Machine Politics
Parties were run by unofficial internal organizations, political machines, which consisted of insiders willing to do party work in exchange for public jobs or the sundry advantages of being connected.
Settlement House
Mid-class people taking residence in working class neighborhoods to learn of needs of people and to help them. First one was in NYC in 1880 and there were 400 by 1910. Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr started the great Hull House in Chicago in 1889. They offered classes, lectures, exhibits, childcare, food services, support for workers’ initiatives, help shape leisure time activities, child labor laws and other political issues for them.
Muller v Oregon
Upheld an Oregon law limiting the workday for women to ten hours. By approving an expansive welfare role for the states, cleared the way for a mighty lobbying effort by women’s organizations.
Direct Primary
The selection of party candidates by a popular vote rather than by the party convention, this progressive reform was especially pressed by Robert La Follette, who viewed it as an instrument for breaking the grip of machines on the political parties. In the South, where it was limited to whites, the primary was a means of disenfranchising blacks.
Social Gospel
A progressive idea/motivation that churches needed to look at broader society/community, not just the individual soul, to save. Felt religiously obligated to do so. Andrew Carnegie was a big believer/supporter of this.
Square Deal
Roosevelt’s Program in 1904. It was a style that dramatized issues, mobilized public opinion and asserted leadership. When companies abused their corporate power, the government would intercede to assure ordinary Americans a “Square Deal.” It dwelled on the need for a reform agenda for the 20th century.
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
An add on to the Monroe Doctrine, claiming that the Western Hemisphere was America’s. It was more pro-expansionist than McKinley and enforced policy of strict American control of the Caribbean. America would act as “policeman” of the region, stepping in “however reluctantly, in flagrant cases…of wrong-doing or impotence.”
Emilio Aguinaldo
Rebellion leader in the Philippines for independence from Spain. US military leaders brought him back from Singapore because they thought he would stir up a popular uprising that would help defeat the Spaniards, but he thought the Americans just wanted an independent Philippines. The rebellion was very costly for both Americans and Filipinos.
Committee on Public Information
A propaganda agency for the war (WWI) headed by George Creel. Made movies and “loyalty leaflets” to promote American democracy. Had division 4 minute men who were public speakers that went to public events like movies and would say a Pro-America speech b4 the start of the event. “Every school pupil a messenger for Uncle Sam” and “every teacher an officer of the state.”
George Creel
Leader of the Committee on Public Information. He believed 100% in the war and was a progressive-optimists and thought being a positive influence could change the world.
Red Scare
Communism began to come to America and with it radical thinking thanks to the Bolshevik Revolution. Many bombings and violence across America. About 250 socialists were exported.
Scopes Trial
A Tennessee anti-evolution law in 1925 was violated by teacher/football coach John Scopes. William Jennings Bryan prosecuted and Clarence Darrow defended. Was a huge deal and ended up being a set back for anti-evolution forces. Scopes was fined $100 and found guilty.
National Industrial Recovery Act, Section 7a
The New Deal’s major response to the problem of economic recovery which launched the National Recovery Administration and established a system of industrial self-government to handle the problems of overproduction, cutthroat competition, and price instability that had caused business failures. Section 7a guaranteed workers the right to organize and bargain collectively, “through representatives of their own choosing.” This dramatically spurred the growth of the labor movement in the 1930s.
Social Security Act
Provided pensions for most workers in the private sector, although originally agricultural workers and domestics were not covered, a limitation that disproportionately disadvantaged poor blacks, especially women. Pensions were to be financed by a federal tax that both employers and employees would pay. It also established a joint federal-state system of unemployment compensation, funded by a tax on employers. It was a milestone in the creation of the modern welfare state. Now the US followed the path of industrialized countries like Great Britain and Germany in providing old-age pensions and unemployment compensation to citizens, as well as the blind, deaf, and disabled and to dependent children.
Fireside Chats
Speeches over the radio in which FDR explained his politics, encouraged Americans to be optimistic about the future, and called upon them to support his programs. This was one of the factors that gave so many Americans a sense of close connection to their president. The chats provoked floods of letters to the White House, many laudatory, others critical in response to what he said in his speech.
Father Charles Coughlin
Challenged FDR’s leadership and attracted a large following, especially in the mid-west. He was a parish priest in Detroit that turned to the radio in the mid-1920s to enlarge his pastorate. At first he supported the New Deal, but soon broke with FDR over the prez’s refusal to support the nationalization of the banking system and the expansion of the money supply. In 1935 he organized the National Union for Social Justice to promote his views, billing them as an alternative to those of “Franklin Double-Crossing Roosevelt.”