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186 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are the time periods in order?

Greeks Pre 400AD


Romans Pre 400AD


Middle Ages 400-1400AD


Renaissance 1400-1750


Industrial revolution 1750-1900


20th century-present 1900-2015


£

Name of the person who came up with the Theory of Four Humours during to time of the Greeks

Hippocrates

Were Hippocrates beliefs natural or supernatural?

Natural

Did the Greek public have natural or Supernatural beliefs?

Supernatural

What did Hippocrates do?

Clinical observations and he wrote books

In the Roman period who came up with the theory of opposites?

Galen

Who was Galen influenced by?

The Greeks

What was the theory of opposites?

He believed if you were cold U should eat something hot

What did he discover from his pig dissection?

That the brain controls what u do not the heart

What mistakes come of his dissection?

He said we have two jaw bones, kidneys aren't in our lungs and we don't have a hole in our hearts

What hindered Galen?

Religion

Describe he public health system during the Roman period

Clean water came from the mountains via aqueducts. It was then used for public baths, toilets and fountains

What were the advantages of the Roman public health system?

* clean drinking water meant fewer water diseases
* They had public baths which meant they were able to wash meaning good hygiene and less infections.
* Safe disposal of sewerage meant less diseases
* The system was available to everyone but only in cities
* Made the army stronger

What happened to public health during the Middle Ages?

Got worse

Why did public health during the Middle Ages get worse?

* Romans left and took engineers
* There was no Central government
* Fighting
* Lack of money
* Lack of communication
* Difficult to travel
* Libraries and public health features destroyed

Why did public health during the Middle Ages get worse?

* Romans left and took engineers
* There was no Central government
* Fighting
* Lack of money
* Lack of communication
* Difficult to travel
* Libraries and public health features destroyed

What year did the Black Death occur during the Middle Ages?

1348

Why did public health during the Middle Ages get worse?

* Romans left and took engineers
* There was no Central government
* Fighting
* Lack of money
* Lack of communication
* Difficult to travel
* Libraries and public health features destroyed

What year did the Black Death occur during the Middle Ages?

1348

What fraction of the population dos the Black Death kill?

1/3

Why did public health during the Middle Ages get worse?

* Romans left and took engineers
* There was no Central government
* Fighting
* Lack of money
* Lack of communication
* Difficult to travel
* Libraries and public health features destroyed

What year did the Black Death occur during the Middle Ages?

1348

What fraction of the population dos the Black Death kill?

1/3

What did flagellants do to repent there sins in order to prevent them from getting the plague?

Whipped themselves

Why did public health during the Middle Ages get worse?

* Romans left and took engineers
* There was no Central government
* Fighting
* Lack of money
* Lack of communication
* Difficult to travel
* Libraries and public health features destroyed

What year did the Black Death occur during the Middle Ages?

1348

What fraction of the population dos the Black Death kill?

1/3

What did flagellants do to repent there sins in order to prevent them from getting the plague?

Whipped themselves

Who did the Middle Ages people believe sent the plague?

God

What was put on the door of a house where someone had the plague

A Red Cross

What was put on the door of a house where someone had the plague

A Red Cross

What ways did they try to treat the Black Death?

* prayer
* Herbal remedies
* Cleaned the streets

What was put on the door of a house where someone had the plague

A Red Cross

What ways did they try to treat the Black Death?

* prayer
* Herbal remedies
* Cleaned the streets

What types of healers were there in he Middle Ages?

* barber surgeons
* Women aka midwives, housewives, nuns, local healers
* Apothecaries, pharmacists
* Physicians
* Hospitals

What was put on the door of a house where someone had the plague

A Red Cross

What ways did they try to treat the Black Death?

* prayer
* Herbal remedies
* Cleaned the streets

What types of healers were there in he Middle Ages?

* barber surgeons
* Women aka midwives, housewives, nuns, local healers
* Apothecaries, pharmacists
* Physicians
* Hospitals

How did barber surgeons heal?

* blood letting
* Simon surgery

What was put on the door of a house where someone had the plague

A Red Cross

What ways did they try to treat the Black Death?

* prayer
* Herbal remedies
* Cleaned the streets

What types of healers were there in he Middle Ages?

* barber surgeons
* Women aka midwives, housewives, nuns, local healers
* Apothecaries, pharmacists
* Physicians
* Hospitals

How did barber surgeons heal?

* blood letting
* Simon surgery

Who's ideas did physicians follow?

Hippocrates and Galen

What was put on the door of a house where someone had the plague

A Red Cross

What ways did they try to treat the Black Death?

* prayer
* Herbal remedies
* Cleaned the streets

What types of healers were there in he Middle Ages?

* barber surgeons
* Women aka midwives, housewives, nuns, local healers
* Apothecaries, pharmacists
* Physicians
* Hospitals

How did barber surgeons heal?

* blood letting
* Simon surgery

Who's ideas did physicians follow?

Hippocrates and Galen

What did the hospitals have to offer during the Middle Ages?

* nuns
* Run by the church
* Weren't medically trained
* Only let minorities in
* Relied on prayer
* Herbal remedies
* Offered rest, food and water
* Cleaned the patients

What individuals were there during the Renaissance

* Harvey
* Versalius

What individuals were there during the Renaissance

* Harvey
* Versalius

What did Harvey discover?

* blood circulation
* Proved the body has veins and arteries
* He believes there were capillaries but didn't have a strong enough microscope to know for sure

What individuals were there during the Renaissance

* Harvey
* Versalius

What did Harvey discover?

* blood circulation
* Proved the body has veins and arteries
* He believes there were capillaries but didn't have a strong enough microscope to know for sure

What are the reasons Harvey isn't believed?

He can't prove capillaries and he goes again it's Galen and the church. He disproves Galen as he finds a hole in the heart and that blood is produced by the liver

What individuals were there during the Renaissance

* Harvey
* Versalius

What did Harvey discover?

* blood circulation
* Proved the body has veins and arteries
* He believes there were capillaries but didn't have a strong enough microscope to know for sure

What are the reasons Harvey isn't believed?

He can't prove capillaries and he goes again it's Galen and the church. He disproves Galen as he finds a hole in the heart and that blood is produced by the liver

What did versalius discover?

* anatomical discoveries
* Was inspired by Harvey
* Disproves Galen - kidneys, jaw bone
* Upsets the church
* Comes up with the rib theory

What individuals were there during the Renaissance

* Harvey
* Versalius

What did Harvey discover?

* blood circulation
* Proved the body has veins and arteries
* He believes there were capillaries but didn't have a strong enough microscope to know for sure

What are the reasons Harvey isn't believed?

He can't prove capillaries and he goes again it's Galen and the church. He disproves Galen as he finds a hole in the heart and that blood is produced by the liver

What did versalius discover?

* anatomical discoveries
* Was inspired by Harvey
* Disproves Galen - kidneys, jaw bone
* Upsets the church
* Comes up with the rib theory

In what year, during the Renaissance, did the great plague occur?

1665

What individuals were there during the Renaissance

* Harvey
* Versalius

What did Harvey discover?

* blood circulation
* Proved the body has veins and arteries
* He believes there were capillaries but didn't have a strong enough microscope to know for sure

What are the reasons Harvey isn't believed?

He can't prove capillaries and he goes again it's Galen and the church. He disproves Galen as he finds a hole in the heart and that blood is produced by the liver

What did versalius discover?

* anatomical discoveries
* Was inspired by Harvey
* Disproves Galen - kidneys, jaw bone
* Upsets the church
* Comes up with the rib theory

In what year, during the Renaissance, did the great plague occur?

1665

What types of treatments and prevention a were there during the Renaissance

Mixture of supernatural and natural

What individuals were there during the Renaissance

* Harvey
* Versalius

What did Harvey discover?

* blood circulation
* Proved the body has veins and arteries
* He believes there were capillaries but didn't have a strong enough microscope to know for sure

What are the reasons Harvey isn't believed?

He can't prove capillaries and he goes again it's Galen and the church. He disproves Galen as he finds a hole in the heart and that blood is produced by the liver

What did versalius discover?

* anatomical discoveries
* Was inspired by Harvey
* Disproves Galen - kidneys, jaw bone
* Upsets the church
* Comes up with the rib theory

In what year, during the Renaissance, did the great plague occur?

1665

What types of treatments and prevention a were there during the Renaissance

Mixture of supernatural and natural

What were the new preventions?

* burning tar
* More focused on miasma than they were during the Black Death

What individuals were there during the Renaissance

* Harvey
* Versalius

What did Harvey discover?

* blood circulation
* Proved the body has veins and arteries
* He believes there were capillaries but didn't have a strong enough microscope to know for sure

What are the reasons Harvey isn't believed?

He can't prove capillaries and he goes again it's Galen and the church. He disproves Galen as he finds a hole in the heart and that blood is produced by the liver

What did versalius discover?

* anatomical discoveries
* Was inspired by Harvey
* Disproves Galen - kidneys, jaw bone
* Upsets the church
* Comes up with the rib theory

In what year, during the Renaissance, did the great plague occur?

1665

What types of treatments and prevention a were there during the Renaissance

Mixture of supernatural and natural

What were the new preventions?

* burning tar
* More focused on miasma than they were during the Black Death

What were some of the orders from the Lord Mayor of London, during the Renaissance

* closed theatres
* Funerals only allowed after dark with no family allowed
* No more gambling
* Closed pubs

This was so that big groups of people couldn't gather.

What individuals were there during the Renaissance

* Harvey
* Versalius

What did Harvey discover?

* blood circulation
* Proved the body has veins and arteries
* He believes there were capillaries but didn't have a strong enough microscope to know for sure

What are the reasons Harvey isn't believed?

He can't prove capillaries and he goes again it's Galen and the church. He disproves Galen as he finds a hole in the heart and that blood is produced by the liver

What did versalius discover?

* anatomical discoveries
* Was inspired by Harvey
* Disproves Galen - kidneys, jaw bone
* Upsets the church
* Comes up with the rib theory

In what year, during the Renaissance, did the great plague occur?

1665

What types of treatments and prevention a were there during the Renaissance

Mixture of supernatural and natural

What were the new preventions?

* burning tar
* More focused on miasma than they were during the Black Death

What were some of the orders from the Lord Mayor of London, during the Renaissance

* closed theatres
* Funerals only allowed after dark with no family allowed
* No more gambling
* Closed pubs

This was so that big groups of people couldn't gather.

What was the same about the healers in the Middle Ages and renaissance?

Apothecaries and physicians (although they were more qualified)


Barber surgeons, housewives, local women.

What was different about the healers during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance?

Men took over the role of midwives


Female healers became less fashionable


Nuns and monks were replaced with nurses and doctors

What was different about the healers during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance?

Men took over the role of midwives


Female healers became less fashionable


Nuns and monks were replaced with nurses and doctors

Religion during the Renaissance period

Reformation- Henry VIII created the Church of England


More religions emerged


Henry destroyed monstrous books and hospitals

What was different about the healers during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance?

Men took over the role of midwives


Female healers became less fashionable


Nuns and monks were replaced with nurses and doctors

Religion during the Renaissance period

Reformation- Henry VIII created the Church of England


More religions emerged


Henry destroyed monstrous books and hospitals

Developments during the Renaissance

* printing press was quick and cheap to produce books and allowed for communication
* Microscope- basic, not powerful
* People read galens books
* People travelled to find new ideas and herbs
* Because of the war, surety improved

What individuals were there during the industrial revolution

* Jenner
* Pasteur
* Koch
* Chadwick
* Snow
* Bazalgette
* Nightingale
* Garrett Anderson

What individuals were there during the industrial revolution

* Jenner
* Pasteur
* Koch
* Chadwick
* Snow
* Bazalgette
* Nightingale
* Garrett Anderson

What individuals were there during the industrial revolution

* Jenner
* Pasteur
* Koch
* Chadwick
* Snow
* Bazalgette
* Nightingale
* Garrett Anderson

What did Jenner do?

Created the smallpox vaccine

What individuals were there during the industrial revolution

* Jenner
* Pasteur
* Koch
* Chadwick
* Snow
* Bazalgette
* Nightingale
* Garrett Anderson

What did Jenner do?

Created the smallpox vaccine

Advantages of the smallpox vaccine

* smallpox was eradicated
* Saved lives
* Safer than inoculation

What individuals were there during the industrial revolution

* Jenner
* Pasteur
* Koch
* Chadwick
* Snow
* Bazalgette
* Nightingale
* Garrett Anderson

What did Jenner do?

Created the smallpox vaccine

Advantages of the smallpox vaccine

* smallpox was eradicated
* Saved lives
* Safer than inoculation

Limitations of smallpox vaccine

* don't know how it works- led do disbelief
* Only works for the smallpox disease

What individuals were there during the industrial revolution

* Jenner
* Pasteur
* Koch
* Chadwick
* Snow
* Bazalgette
* Nightingale
* Garrett Anderson

What did Jenner do?

Created the smallpox vaccine

Advantages of the smallpox vaccine

* smallpox was eradicated
* Saved lives
* Safer than inoculation

Limitations of smallpox vaccine

* don't know how it works- led do disbelief
* Only works for the smallpox disease

What theory did Pasteur come up with during the industrial revolution and in what year?

Germ theory in 1861

What individuals were there during the industrial revolution

* Jenner
* Pasteur
* Koch
* Chadwick
* Snow
* Bazalgette
* Nightingale
* Garrett Anderson

What did Jenner do?

Created the smallpox vaccine

Advantages of the smallpox vaccine

* smallpox was eradicated
* Saved lives
* Safer than inoculation

Limitations of smallpox vaccine

* don't know how it works- led do disbelief
* Only works for the smallpox disease

What theory did Pasteur come up with during the industrial revolution and in what year?

Germ theory in 1861

What did Pasteur do?

* proved how vaccines work

What individuals were there during the industrial revolution

* Jenner
* Pasteur
* Koch
* Chadwick
* Snow
* Bazalgette
* Nightingale
* Garrett Anderson

What did Jenner do?

Created the smallpox vaccine

Advantages of the smallpox vaccine

* smallpox was eradicated
* Saved lives
* Safer than inoculation

Limitations of smallpox vaccine

* don't know how it works- led do disbelief
* Only works for the smallpox disease

What theory did Pasteur come up with during the industrial revolution and in what year?

Germ theory in 1861

What did Pasteur do?

* proved how vaccines work

Advantages of his theory

* disproves spontaneous generation
* He inspired Koch

What individuals were there during the industrial revolution

* Jenner
* Pasteur
* Koch
* Chadwick
* Snow
* Bazalgette
* Nightingale
* Garrett Anderson

What did Jenner do?

Created the smallpox vaccine

Advantages of the smallpox vaccine

* smallpox was eradicated
* Saved lives
* Safer than inoculation

Limitations of smallpox vaccine

* don't know how it works- led do disbelief
* Only works for the smallpox disease

What theory did Pasteur come up with during the industrial revolution and in what year?

Germ theory in 1861

What did Pasteur do?

* proved how vaccines work

Advantages of his theory

* disproves spontaneous generation
* He inspired Koch

Limitations of germ theory

Didn't apply it to humans

What individuals were there during the industrial revolution

* Jenner
* Pasteur
* Koch
* Chadwick
* Snow
* Bazalgette
* Nightingale
* Garrett Anderson

What did Jenner do?

Created the smallpox vaccine

Advantages of the smallpox vaccine

* smallpox was eradicated
* Saved lives
* Safer than inoculation

Limitations of smallpox vaccine

* don't know how it works- led do disbelief
* Only works for the smallpox disease

What theory did Pasteur come up with during the industrial revolution and in what year?

Germ theory in 1861

What did Pasteur do?

* proved how vaccines work

Advantages of his theory

* disproves spontaneous generation
* He inspired Koch

Limitations of germ theory

Didn't apply it to humans

What discoveries were made about vaccinations

Proved it requires germs and the same method is used for all vaccines

What did Koch do?

Linked germs to human disease

Limitations of Koch

He didn't find a cure

What did Chadwick do during the Industrial revolution in 1842

Report In poor areas and living conditions

Advantages and limitation of chadwicks report

Highlighted and explained problems, suggests the government should provide clean water, medical surgeons and sewers



The government didn't introduce it until 1848

What did snow do in 1854

Proved the cause of cholera

Advantages and limitations of snows discovery

Adv- government listened


Disadv- took government 4 years

What did Bazalgette do during the industrial revolution

* designed and built the london sewerage system

What are the advantages and disadvantages of national health insurance (1911)

Adv: workers can receive health care, poor people can get help


Disadv: not available to everyone

In 1942 beveridge wrote a report what did it advise?

It advised the government to provide health care for everyone

Who was the minister for health during the 20th century

Bevan. He was a former trade union leader.

When and why was the nhs introduced?

Introduced in 1948 because of casualties (soldiers and civilians) and the evacuation highlighted the poor health of city children

What thing, during the 20th century, that helps to provide housing and money to buy food was introduced?

Benefits

What type of housing was introduced during the 20th century

Council housing

Who founded pencilling during the 20th century century

Fleming

Who did Fleming inspire?

Florey and chain

Why did Fleming give up?

Lacked funding

What did Florey and chain do

Created penicillin in mass

What was an advantage of Bazalgette doing this

Cholera was no longer present in London once the sewers were finished

Advantages of penicillin

* still used today
* Saved ww2 soldiers
* Long term benefits
* Mass produced

What is a limitation of the production of penicillin

Took a while to get funding. Only got the funding from the US when they needed it because of War

What did marie curie discover?

Radioactivity

What is an advantage of radioactivity

Can be used to treat cancer

Limitations of radioactivity

Overexposure an cause cancer and lead to death

What did crick and Watson discover

DNA

Advantage of the discovery of dna

* can explain hereditary diseases
* Can mutate cells to prevent disease in babies

What are the limitations of the discovery of DNA

Some people disagree with genetic mutation

Who developed the X-Ray

Rontgen

What is an advantage of the X-ray

* used by crick, Watson and Marie Curie

What did nightingale do during the industrial revolution

Improved hygiene in hospitals and professionalised nursing

Disadvantage of X-rays

Overexposure causes health problems

How were blood transfusions thought of and developed

By Landsteiner. He identified different blood groups and knew how to store blood for longer

In the 20th century plastic surgery was invented, why?

To help men from ww1 and ww2 to lead more normal lives

What are the advantages of nightingale doing this

* her work was published
* She decreased the death rate in the hospital she was working at during the Crimean war from 42%-2%
* Set up a nursing school

What are the limitations of nightingales work

Not all men would've respected her

Who was garrett Anderson during the industrial revolution?

She was the first British female doctor

How's did Garrett Anderson manage to become a doctor

She found a loop hole in the society of apothecaries which meant they had to allow her to become a doctor

What is one advantage of Garrett Anderson?

She encouraged other women to become doctors also

What is a feature of public health/ welfare during the 20th century

The liberal reforms e,g. Free school meals

What did rowntree and booth do for public health/ welfare during the 20th century?

They investigated conditions of the poor and encouraged them to take action