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100 Cards in this Set

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The writer who best gave expression to the sixteenth century preoccupation with political power was
Niccolo Machiavelli
Machiavelli’s emphasis that the ends justify the means had been expressed earlier by
India’s Kautilya
In the fifteenth century, the Italians especially the Venetians in their commercial empires were only rivaled by
the Hansiatic League
The third estates included
peasants, merchants, and artisans
Peasants made up the overwhelming mass of the third estate except in
Flanders and northern Italy
By 1500, poor city-dwellers constituted ___ percent of the urban population
30-40
Which of the following was not a result of the development of printing in Europe?
•More people began to read.
•Chinese influence over European affairs rose sharply because of their invention of paper.
•Standard textbooks were developed.
•Research and learning increased.
•It played a major role in the Protestant Reformation.
Chinese influence over European affairs rose sharply because of their invention of paper
The most influential Christian humanist, who popularized the reform program of Christian
humanism, was
Desiderius Erasmus
The individual who “laid the egg that Luther hatched” was
Erasmus
Among the complaints of religious Europeans around 1500 was
the belief that the clergy were too interested in financial matters and disinterested in religion
Which of the following was not a position taken by Martin Luther?
•The purchase of indulgences would not lead to salvation
•The German princes should establish a reformed German church
•Reading the Bible is important
•Acts of good work are the sole source of salvation
•Salvation would be achieved through faith
Acts of good work are the sole source of salvation
Luther’s reforms included all of the following except
•a married Protestant clergy.
•salvation by faith
•clerical celibacy
•new religious services, including Bible reading and preaching
•national church in Germany
clerical celibacy
As a result of the 1555 Peace of Augsburg,
Lutheranism became established as an alternative to Roman Catholicism in the Germanies
The Institutes of the Christian Religion, a masterful synthesis of Protestant thought, was written by
John Calvin
The city most associated with Calvin is
Geneva
John Calvin
advanced the doctrine of predestination
An important reason why Henry VIII broke with the Roman church was because
he could not get Rome’s permission to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon
After Henry VIII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon was annulled by the Archbishop of Canterbury,
Parliament finalized England’s religious break with Rome by passing the Act of Supremacy, making Henry the head of the Anglican Church
After the death of Henry VIII, England
became more Protestant under Edward VI
Which of the following is not an accurate reference to Anabaptist ideas and practices?
•They considered all believers to be equal
•They saw government as a direct partner with religion in society
•Other Protestants and Catholics agreed on their persecution
•They believed in adult baptism
•They were a radical group of religious reformers
They saw government as a direct partner with religion in society
Which of the following are correct statements about life in Protestant Europe in the 1500s and 1600s?
•England’s Henry VIII established the Lutheran Church in his kingdom
•Differences with Catholics were always resolved peacefully
•Women were given equal political rights with men
•Ministers were allowed to get married and have families
•Clergy were required to remain celibate
Ministers were allowed to get married and have families
All of the following statements are correct except
•love was the major reason for marriage
•the husband was to be the ruler and the wife was to obey
•in the early modern period the family was the heart of the social order
•in Europe, as in China, most marriages were arranged by the parents
•in addition to obeying her husband, the wife’s other role was to bear children
love was the major reason for marriage
All except which of the following would characterize the Jesuit order?
•It was committed to using education to restore Catholicism in Europe
•It was responsible for the restoration of Catholicism in areas of Germany and eastern Europe
•It arranged a theological compromise with the Protestants
•It was first led by a Spanish nobleman
•It owed absolute obedience to the pope
It arranged a theological compromise with the Protestants
The pope who began the reformation of the papacy was
Paul III
The Council of Trent took the position that
faith and good works were required for salvation
The Edict of Nantes
legitimized Calvinist worship and permitted Calvinists to engage in politics in France
The “most Catholic king” and the ruler who sparked a civil war in the Netherlands was
Philip II
Queen Elizabeth I
successfully survived the Spanish armada
Among the major elements underlying the Social Crisis of the 1600s was
that the Mediterranean area entered a steep economic decline as silver imports from Spanish colonies declined
All of the following were true about the witchcraft craze in the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries except
•most of those accused of being witches were female
•the hysteria surrounding the accusations of witchcraft led to many witch trials
•the unsettling nature of the times served to feed the frenzy over witchcraft allegations
•the witchcraft hysteria was declining by the mid 1600s
•it was exclusively a big city phenomenon
it was exclusively a big city phenomenon
Advocates of “mercantilism” argued for all of the following except
•tariffs should be place on foreign goods
•governments should abstain from any involvement in the economy
•a nation prosperity depended upon a plentiful supply of bullion (gold and silver)
•exports must exceed imports
•governments should improve transportation facilities and grant trade monopolies to businesses
governments should abstain from any involvement in the economy
The Thirty Years’ War
was ended by the signing of the Peace of Westphalia
The European ruler who developed the first standing army of conscripts, notable for the flexibility of its tactics, was
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden
The traditional example of seventeenth century absolutism has been the rule of
Louis XIV
All of the following aided in the development of French absolutism except
•putting down rebellious challenges to royal rule
•Louis XIV’s removal of the royal princes from the royal council
•the king’s ability to rule directly over the internal administration of the kingdom
•the concentration of central policy making at Versailles
•royal policies effectively weakening the Huguenots and the French nobles
the king’s ability to rule directly over the internal administration of the kingdom
The legacy Louis XIV left to France was
a nation that was financially destitute
After the Turks were defeated in 1687 all of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia came under Habsburg rule, thus establishing in southeastern Europe the
Austrian Empire
The first Russian ruler who took the title of tsar, who expanded the territories of Russia to the east, and who crushed the power of the nobility was
Ivan IV
All of the following were policies of Peter the Great except
•state domination of the Russian Orthodox church
•isolating Russia from the ways and customs of western Europe
•an effort to modernize Russia
•strengthening of the power of the tsar
•the majority of governmental expenditures were for military purposes
isolating Russia from the ways and customs of western Europe
James I alienated England’s Parliament because of his advocacy of
divine right of kings
Puritans were all of the following except that
•they admired the Catholic elements in the Church of England
•they frequently disagreed with the Stuart kings
•much of England’s gentry were Puritans
•they were Protestant Christians
•they wanted to reform the Anglican church
they admired the Catholic elements in the Church of England
The only military genius of the English Civil War was
Oliver Cromwell
In England, during the period of the 1640s to 1660, all of the following occurred except
•Oliver Cromwell led his New Model Army to victory over the forces of the king
•Charles II replaced his executed father on the English throne
•after the death of Charles I, Cromwell became the new king of England
•Charles I was executed.
•Charles I antagonized the Puritans in Parliament
Charles II replaced his executed father on the English throne
The spark that began the Glorious Revolution was the
birth of a son to James II
As a result of the Glorious Revolution in England
Parliament became a major participant in the running of the English government
a result of the Glorious Revolution, England became a
constitutional monarchy
The Baroque painting style was especially evident in the works of
Peter Paul Rubens
The greatest figure of the Baroque was the architect and sculptor
Bernini
Baroque artists sought to harmonize the
ideals of Renaissance art with spiritual feelings of the religious reformations
The golden age of English literature is represented by
Shakespeare
The Ptolemaic view of the universe believed all of the following to be true except
•heavenly bodies, composed of a crystalline substance, resided in concentric spheres that moved in circular orbits around the earth
•God and all the saved souls resided in the Empyrean Heaven that lay beyond the outermost, or tenth, sphere
•God and the saved souls were at one end of the universe and humans at the center
•the planets were believed to be imperfect and material
•the imperfect, motionless earth was in a state of constant change at the center of the universe
the planets were believed to be imperfect and material
A discovery made by Galileo was the
similarity of the material composition of other planets and the moon to that of the earth
The Catholic Church condemned the theories of Copernicus and Galileo because they
threatened the Scriptures, as the heavens were no longer a spiritual world but a world of matter
Newton’s Principia
supplied the new theory of the universe that combined the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo
All of the following were relevant to Newton’s discoveries except
•his theories had no spiritual ramifications
•Einsteinian relativity eventually came to superseded Newtonian mechanism
•they created a new cosmology.
•they presented a basically mechanical explanation of things
•universal motion could be mathematically explained
his theories had no spiritual ramifications
Cartesian dualism
viewed mind and matter as two distinct and separate entities
Rene Descartes
claimed that “I think, therefore I am.”
Which of the following was not one of the positive buzzwords of the Enlightenment?
•reason
•natural law
•hope
•divine revelation
•progress
divine revelation
The intellectuals of the Enlightenment advocated the
of the scientific method to foster progress toward a “better” society
The philosophes generally included all of the following except
•the urban middle classes
•social reformers
•journalists
•the rural lower classes
•professors
the rural lower classes
In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, the writer who said each of us is born with a tabula rasa was
John Locke
Which of the following statements would John Locke find acceptable?
•Some of us are born bad
•A positive environment will create positive results
•Everything that we are is in our genes
•Faith, not reason, determines what we know
•Original sin places limits on individual aspirations
A positive environment will create positive results
The philosophe who praised the checks and balances of the British constitution was
Montesquieu
The most active opponent of religious intolerance and the most outspoken anti-Christians among the philosophes were
Voltaire and Diderot
Enlightenment advocates of economic liberalism
believed that individuals should be free to pursue their own economic self-interest
The best statement of laissez-faire as providing the foundation for economic liberalism was made in 1776 by
Adam Smith
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
argued that, in accord with the “general will,” people could be “forced to be free.”
Which of the following descriptions best depicts the Rococo style?
•emphasis on largeness and majesty
•a fondness for curves and emphasized grace, charm, and gentle action
•a rejection of the effort to seek love, joy, and pleasure in favor of religious imagery
•stress on formal order
•the profuse use of strict geometric patterns
a fondness for curves and emphasized grace, charm, and gentle action
Lyrical Rococo depictions of aristocratic life were expressed in the work of
Antoine Watteau
All of the following were true about European population and food supplies except
•food production increased in Europe during the eighteenth century
•the introduction of the potato and maize provided a much needed staple foods
•the New World was a source of new vegetables for Europe
•as the eighteenth century progressed, European population declined
•food supplies decreased while food prices rose sharply in France in 1789
as the eighteenth century progressed, European population declined
The most important product of European industry in the eighteenth century was
textiles
The system that came to be known as the “cottage industry” involved all except
•country laborers producing yarn and cloth
•the selling of finished products by an entrepreneur
•peasants grew cotton on their farms and sold the raw material to entrepreneurs
•the purchase, by an entrepreneur, of the raw materials needed for textile production
• it was also known as the “putting-out” system
peasants grew cotton on their farms and sold the raw material to entrepreneurs
Which of the following was not an element in eighteenth century global trade?
•American plantation products were purchased by the nations of Europe
•English manufactured goods were traded for African slaves, who were sold in Virginia for tobacco, which was then processed in England and sold for cash in Germany
•Overseas trade boomed
•Gold and silver were shipped to America by Spain
•Indian and Chinese products were purchased by the English, Dutch, and French
Gold and silver were shipped to America by Spain
Outside of Europe, the major scenes of battle in the Seven Years War were
India and North America
In eighteenth century Europe
nobles constituted approximately two or three percent of the population
In Latin America, the offspring of Africans and whites and of Europeans and natives were called, respectively,
mulattoes and mestizos
Over the long period, the resource that proved most profitable in Latin America was
agriculture
In line with mercantilist theory,
American colonies were viewed as sources of raw materials and markets by Europeans
Which of the following statements is an accurate depiction of the nature of the British Parliament in the latter half of the eighteenth century?
•It shared power with the king, gradually gaining the upper hand
•Uniquely, women could become Members of Parliament
•It failed to meet between 1753 and 1792
•It was primarily composed of civil libertarians who advocated individual rights
•Its role was primarily that of a rubber stamp for the king
shared power with the king, gradually gaining the upper hand
The formal event which led to the break between the American colonies and England was the
confrontation over the Stamp Act
In the American Revolution, the rebels
received the support of a number of European countries
Britain decided to end its war against the Americans after a combined American and French force defeated General Cornwallis at
Yorktown
The new United States Constitution of 1787
employed Montesquieu’s conception of the separation of powers
Enlightened Absolutism
was based more on practical measures to strengthen the power of the state than to “reform” and free their populations
The eighteenth century ruler who called himself/herself “the first servant of the state” was
Frederick II of Prussia
The Austrian ruler whose reform program abolished serfdom, eliminated internal trade barriers, and instituted a new penal code, among other things, was
Joseph II
The Russian monarch whose policies favored the landed nobility, at the expense of the serfs, was
Catherine the Great
Enlightened Despotism
demonstrated much more despotism than enlightenment in Russia
On the eve of the French Revolution, all of the following are correct except
•the nobles and clergy in France were effectively untaxed, even as the French treasury neared bankruptcy and millions were hungry
•the bourgeoisie comprised about eight percent of the population
•the peasants were enthusiastic for revolutionary change
•monarchy was the norm for European governments
•the hereditary aristocracy was still the most powerful class in European society
the peasants were enthusiastic for revolutionary change
The Estates General was convened in 1789 in order to deal with the
near bankruptcy of the French Treasury
The illegal event that constituted the start of the French Revolution was the
action of the Third Estate in declaring itself to be a National Assembly
Which of the following statements is incorrect regarding developments in the French Revolution prior to September 1792?
•Louis XVI destroyed his public standing by attempting to flee
•Warfare broke out between France and Austria
•Louis XVI was an enthusiastic supporter of the revolutionary events
•The fall of the Bastille weakened the government
•The National Assembly created a basic declaration of liberties, and a new constitution to establish a limited monarchy
Louis XVI was an enthusiastic supporter of the revolutionary events
The Committee of Public Safety was established to
combat the dual threat of internal rebellion and foreign invasion
The French Revolution
created a “nation in arms” and an army of 650,000
The military forces raised by the French revolutionary government was
a true army of the people, whose intensity was the beginning of the concept of total war
Which of the following was not an immediate result of the fall of Robespierre?
•A new constitution was written that strove for stability by placing executive authority in the hands of the Directory
•Napoleon was elected President of France
•The Reign of Terror ended
•Moderate forces came to control the Revolution
•A period of stagnation and corruption ensued
Napoleon was elected President of France
Napoleon gained control of the executive authority of the French government by
seizing power in a coup d’etat
The most ironic aspect of Napoleon’s career or rule in France was that
it was more autocratic than that of Louis XVI, which had initially sparked the Revolution
Which of the following was not achieved during the regime of Napoleon?
•The laws of France were codified in the Civil Code
•A powerful, centralized bureaucracy was established
•A Concordat was arranged with the pope
•All divorces were outlawed
•The legal position of women was weakened with the activation of the Civil Code
All divorces were outlawed
What was the correct order regarding Napoleon?
Italy, Russia, Elba, Waterloo, Saint Helena