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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What were the achievements of the Confederation government?

1.) Established a working government

2.) Raised an army

3.) Had a currency

What were the problems of the Confederation government?

1.) Divisions within it

2.) Failed to gain international support

3.) Went bankrupt

What major disagreements and compromises molded the final content of the constitution?

1. Balance of federal and national government

2. Slavery

How did African slavery differ regionally in 18th-century North America?

1. Rejected and eventually banned in the North

2. Accepted and favored in the south because it was cheap labor.

How did the definition of citizenship in the new republic exclude Native Americans & blacks?

Nowhere does the original Constitution define who in fact are citizens of the United Sates. The individual states were left free to determine the boundaries of liberty.

What issues made the politics of the 1790s so divisive?

-Financial plan of the Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton in 1790 and 1791

-Commercial Republic vs. financers, manufactures, and merchants

What were the achievements and failures of Jefferson's Presidency?

A couple of his achievements were acquiring Louisiana and getting rid of taxes and increasing embargos. One failure was the Barbary Wars.

What were the causes & significant results of the War of 1812?

Two of the biggest causes of the 1812 War were the British pushing Tecumseh's efforts contributed to come to the War of 1812, and assaults on American ships. The significant results of the war was___________?

What were the main elements of the market revolution?

In the first half of the 19th century, in rapid succession, the steamboat, canal, railroad, and telegraph brought America out of its economic past. These innovation opened new land to settlement, lowered transportation costs, and made it far easier for economic enterprises to sell their products.

How did the meanings of American freedom change in this period?

During this second great awakening American Freedom changed. There was more freedom than ever before. Laws begun to favor the individual person not the government. This was because of the new idea "individualism."

How did the Revolution affect the status of women?

They were given tastes of freedom and independence, though still thoroughly "guarded'' by men.

How did the market revolution affect the lives of African-Americans?

They were excluded largely from all the "benefits" of new found freedom and liberty.

What were the social bases for the flourishing democracy of the early mid-19th century?

The social basis for democracy was property. By 1860 all other voting requirements had been destroyed accept the property requirement.

What efforts were made in this period to strengthen the economic integration of the nation, & what major crises hindered those efforts?

The United States Bank and other internal government improvements like rail roads and canals were meant to strengthen the economic integration, but things like resentment towards the 2nd National Bank, The Panic of 1819 (when European demand for American products went back to normal levels it caused a huge economic downfall,) and the Missouri Controversy were all crisis that hindered these financial efforts.

What were the major areas of conflict between nationalism & sectionalism?

Nationalism wanted to expand its country inside its borders while sectionalism wanted to expand its country outside its borders.

In what ways did Andrew Jackson embody the contradictions of democratic nationalism?

Andrew Jackson embodied the contradictions of democratic nationalism when he attempted to attract the Whigs as well. This gave him control to guide economic development in many major areas across the United States. He also attracted many more votes this way.

How did the Bank War influence the economy & party competition?

How did the Bank War influence the economy & party competition?It increased wages, prices, and increased the value of money but this boom ended quickly causing a massive decline in the value of money. With this happened in politics the hard money, anti-bank wing of the Democratic Party came to power.

Why is the Civil War considered the "first modern war"

-First War w/ advanced technology (post-industrial revolution)

-Army vs. Army (compared to army vs. civilian)

-No one was prepared-mass chaos

How did the Civil War transform the national economy and create a stronger nation-state?

-Success from railroads making businesses more successful

-Religion; people having faith/emphasizing community/unity

How did a war to preserve the Union become a war to end slavery?

-Abolitionists and Republicans used it as a war move because more men and women took a stand against slavery

-Lincoln drafted the Emancipation Proclamation

What were the military and political turning points of the war?

The biggest turning point was Lincoln's call to end slavery after moral on both sides sank to extreme lows in the middle of the century

How did the war effort and leadership problems affect the society and economy of the Confederacy?

-Major discord amongst themselves

-Loss of supplies

-Borrowed money and could not repay it/financial instability

-Moral was exceptionally low

What were the most important wartime "rehearsals for reconstruction?"

-More white people joining the "force" to end slavery

-Most famous: Sea Islands Experiment (debate between wether or not slaves should be allowed to discover freedom on their own, or "given" options to work under more humane conditions)

What characteristics of American life does Crèvecoeur emphasize as being different from European society?

-No hierarchy or aristocracy within family units

-Land is uncultivated (vs. European cities)

-America is a "new breed"-many mixed cultures

What aspects of society, and which parts of the people living in the United States, are left out of his description?

Native americans, although they were very successful and had extremely efficient systems of farming, agriculture and living

What is Henry David Thoreau’s "Walden" about?

How American's lost their vision of what is important (family, community) and starting obsessing over wealth and the ugly sides of politics

What reasons do the Cherokee give for rejecting the idea of moving beyond the Mississippi River?

-They were there first.

-They know how to care for the land

-They have been there forever

How do the Cherokee understand their "national and individual rights"?

They were the original possessors of the region now left without a place to go, which would make them more dangerous.

Why does Lincoln date the foundation of the nation from 1776 (the date of the Declaration of Independence) rather than 1787, when the Constitution was written?

That is when America was formed on the principal that all men are created equal. 1776 was when the Americans were (almost completely) fighting for the same thing: freedom from Britain and the rights to live how they saw fit. He believed they were a nation long before the official statement of the Constitution was in place.

Why does Lincoln consider the Civil War a "new birth of freedom”?

America as a country was taking a huge step in the direction of following what the original constitution stood for: equality for all. Lincoln viewed the Civil War as a time where America could really make a statement about what freedom truly was-and not just for white people but everyone.

Bartolomé de las Casas on Spanish Treatment of the Indians

Spanish mistreatment of the Indians

Spain caused death of millions of Indians upon immigration of america circa early 1500s

William's limits on liberty?

-There must be respect

-Do not take advantage of "Liberty"

What are the strengths and weaknesses of Williams's analogy between civil society and a group of people aboard a ship?

-Different people working together (ethnicities/races/etc)

-Different people are used to living entirely differently

What practical reason does the notice give for eliminating indentured servitude?

The main reason, apart from separating the distinction between citizens and slaves (which many were attempting to eliminate) was to encourage immigration from other countries to help America continue to grow.

Why do you think the notice singles out the sale of "White people" as contrary to liberty?

The main reason could possibly be because white people were often the most privileged of people groups. Wether or not they intended to be, white people were often viewed as a superior class, which doesn’t promote the notion of liberty and equality, especially when white people were most often the slave owners.

How do slave owners hope their fugitives will be identified?

Clothes Primarily

What do these advertisements tell us about relations between slaves and servants?

It shows that the relationship between slaves and servants was pretty different. Solely based off the descriptions, it would appear that owners of servants typically paid more attention to individuals, where as the owners of slaves seemed to have viewed them as strictly a commodity.

What characteristics of American life does Crèvecoeur emphasize as being different from European society?

There are no “kings, bishops, great manufacturers,” etc. He also talks about how the land is greatly uncultivated, whereas in Europe at the time it was much more settled.

What did Creveoucour leave out of his description?

Native Americans and how cultivated/established they were.

Key Points of the Cherokee Appeal

-It was their land

-They knew how to work the land

Articles of the Confederation

-Articles that were important for the founding of the government

-To maintain structure

-"Made energetic national government possible"

Key events of 1700's

-Articles of Confederation

-Treaty of Paris

-Shay's Rebellion


-First National Census

What was Shay's Rebellion?

In the late 1700's crowds of debt-ridden farmesr closed the courts in western Massachusetts to prevent the seizure of their land for failure to pay taxes. They called themselves "regulators"

New Constitution

signed by 55 men

The Limits of Democracy

The people's opinion would matter-less democratic. "The people would remain sovereign"

What did Madison Emphasize in regards to the Constitution

"government must be based on the will of the people, yet people had shown themselves to be dangerous enthusiasts"

Construction was structured to prevent the abuse of authority


Said the Constitution shifted the balance to far on the power side (instead of liberty)

Bill of Rights

Freedom of Speech, press, religion-protection against unjust criminal procedures and equality against the law (not in the first draft of the Constitution)

National Identity

"We the People"

What did Jefferson believe about race?

No person was tied to their origins

Bank of the United States

The President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States, commonly known as the First Bank of the United States, was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress on February 25, 1791.

Jay's Treaty

John Jay's Treaty, 1794–95. On November 19, 1794 representatives of the United States and Great Britain signed Jay's Treaty, which sought to settle outstanding issues between the two countries that had been left unresolved since American independence.

What are Federalists?

The supporters of the proposed Constitution called themselves "Federalists."

Whiskey Rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion, also known as theWhiskey Insurrection, was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. The so-called "whiskey tax" was the first tax imposed on a domestic product by the newly formed federal government.

Who is Judith Sargent Murray?

Judith Sargent Murray was an early American advocate for women's rights, an essayist, playwright, poet, and letter writer.

XYZ Affair

The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War.

Alien and Sedation Acts

The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed by the Federalist dominated 5th United States Congress, and signed into law by Federalist President John Adams in 1798.

Virginia and Kentucky resolutions

The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions (or Resolves) were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which theKentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional.

Gabriel's Rebellion

Gabriel, today commonly—if incorrectly—known as Gabriel Prosser, was a literate enslaved blacksmith who planned a large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800

Barbary Wars

The Barbary Wars were two wars fought at different times over the same reasons between the United States and the Barbary states of North Africa in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Embargo Act

The Embargo Act of 1807 was a generalEmbargo that made any and all exports from the United States illegal. It was sponsored by President Thomas Jefferson and enacted by Congress. The goal was to force Britain and France to respect American rights during the Napoleonic Wars.

Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa

Native Americans who fought against Americans

Hartford Convention

The Hartford Convention was a series of meetings from December 15, 1814 – January 5, 1815 in Hartford, Connecticut, United States, in which the New England Federalist Party met to discuss their grievances concerning the ongoing War of 1812 and the political problems arising from the federal government's increasing power.


Turnpike, another term for a toll road. Turnpike trusts, a body set up by act of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal highways during the 18th and 19th centuries.


The first steam-powered ship Pyroscaphe was a paddle steamer powered by a Newcomen steam engine; it was built in France in 1783 by Marquis Claude de Jouffroy and his colleagues as an improvement of an earlier attempt, the 1776 Palmipède.

Erie Canal

The Erie Canal is a canal in New York that originally ran about 363 miles from Albany, on the Hudson River to Buffalo, at Lake Erie. It was built to create a navigable water route from New York City and the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes. (1825)

Cotton Gin

The cotton gin is a device for removing the seeds from cotton fiber. Such machines have been around for centuries. Eli Whitney's machine of 1794, however, was the first to clean short-staple cotton, and a single device could produce up to fifty pounds of cleanedcotton in a day.

Cotton Kingdom

King Cotton was a slogan summarizing the strategy used during the American Civil War by the Confederacy to show that secession was feasible and there was no need to fear a war by the United States.

Cyrus McCormick Reaper

Cyrus Hall McCormick (February 15, 1809 – May 13, 1884) was an American inventor and founder of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, which became part of International Harvester Company in 1902.[2] (First Reaper)

American System of Manufacturing

System of manufacturing that used interchangeable parts, involves semi-skilled labor using machine tools and templates to make standardized, identical, interchangeable parts, manufactured to a tolerance.

Mill Girls

Girls who worked and lived in factories


the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward, 17 U.S. 518, was a landmark decision from the United States Supreme Court dealing with the application of the Contract Clause of the United States Constitution to private corporations.

Church of LDS

Founded in the 19th Century

Self Made Man

Self-made men were men of the middle class who rose to wealth or to a higher social status from humble origins through self-discipline, hard work, and temperate habits.

Cult of Domesticity

The cult of domesticity, also known as the cult of true womanhood (by people who like it), is a view about women in the 1800s. They believed that women should stay at home and should not do any work outside of the home. There were four things they believed that women should be: More religious than men.

The Dorr War/Rebellion

The Dorr Rebellion was a failed attempt to force broader democracy in the U.S. state of Rhode Island, where a small rural elite was in control of government.

"Democracy in America" (Book)

Alexis de Tocqueville (French) written on American systems (government, prisons, etc.)

Infant Industry

In economics, an infant industry is a new industry, which in its early stages experiences relative difficulty or is absolutely incapable in competing with established competitors abroad.

American System

This "System" consisted of three mutually reenforcing parts: a tariff to protect and promote American industry; a national bank to foster commerce; and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other "internal improvements" to develop profitable markets for agriculture.

Internal Improvements

Henry Clay developed a plan for profitable home markets called the American System in 1824. It enforced a protective tariff to get funding for transportation improvements. (Roads, railways, etc.)

Second Bank of the United States

It was a federal establishment operated by the gov't as an attempt to save the welfare of the economy after the War of 1812. It was part of Henry Clay's American System and forced state banks to call in their loans which led to foreclosures and the Panic of 1819.

Panic of 1819

The Panic of 1819 was the first major peacetime financial crisis in the United States followed by a general collapse of the American economy persisting through 1821.

McCulloch v.Maryland

Trial during chief Justice John Marchalls reign; involving the state of Maryland& their right to tax the federal bank--sets precident for the "loose clause"--increased power of Fed, government.

Missouri Compromise

The Missouri Compromise was an effort by Congress to defuse the sectional and political rivalries triggered by the request of Missourilate in 1819 for admission as a state in which slavery would be permitted. At the time, the United States contained twenty-two states, evenly divided between slave and free.

Monroe Doctrine

The Monroe Doctrine was a U.S. foreign policy regarding domination of the American continent in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.

Democratic vs. Whig

Two branches of same party (Democratic) slightly different Ideals

Spoils System

(also known as a patronage system) is a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party

Tariff of Abominations

The "Tariff of 1828" was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States.

The Nulliffication Crisis

The Nullification Crisis was a sectional crisis in 1832–33, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, which involved a confrontation between South Carolina and the federal government.

Force Act

The Enforcement Act of 1870, also known as the Civil Rights Act of 1870 or First Ku Klux Klan Act, or Force Act was a United States federal law written to empower the President with the legal authority to enforce the first section of the Fifteenth Amendment throughout the United States.

Indian Removal Act

The Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. The law authorized the president to negotiate with southern Indian tribes for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their ancestral homelands

Worcester v. Georgia

a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.

Trail of Tears

In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects.

The Bank War

The Bank War refers to the political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the SecondBank of the United States (BUS) during the Andrew Jackson administration (1829–1837).

Hard Money v. Soft Money

Hard money" refers to tightly regulated contributions to candidates, while "soft money" refers to unregulated, unlimited contributions to political parties for so-called "party-building" activities.

Pet Banks

Pet banks is a pejorative term for state banks selected by the U.S. Department of Treasury to receive surplus government funds in 1833.

Panic of 1837

The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s. Profits, prices, and wages went down while unemployment went up.

First Modern War

Civl War

"The Draft" (Enrollment Act)

The Enrollment Act, 12 Stat. 731, enacted March 3, 1863, also known as the Civil War Military Draft Act, was a legislation passed by the United States Congress during the American Civil War to provide fresh manpower for the Union Army.

Battle of Antietam

The Army of the Potomac, under the command of George McClellan, mounted a series of powerful assaults against Robert E. Lee’s forces near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862.

Monitor v. Merrimac

The Battle of Hampton Roads, often referred to as either the Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (or Virginia) or the Battle of Ironclads, was the most noted and arguably most important naval battle of the American Civil War

The Contrabands

Contraband was a term commonly used in the United States military during the American Civil War to describe a new status for certain escaped slaves or those who affiliated with Union forces.

Radical Republicans

The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party from about 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877.

Emancipation Proclamation

President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. Theproclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."

Black Soldiers and Sailors

Made up over 15% of the people in the Civil War

The Second American Revolution

Civil War (Liberty for African Americans, too)

Civic Religion

an institutionalized collection of sacred beliefs about the American nation," which he sees symbolically expressed in America's founding documents and presidential inaugural addresses.

Ex Parte Milligan

Ex parte Milligan, 71 U.S. 2, was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that the application of military tribunals to citizens when civilian courts are still operating is unconstitutional.

Homestead Act

Signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862, the Homestead Act encouraged Western migration by providing settlers 160 acres of public land. In exchange, homesteaders paid a small filing fee and were required to complete five years of continuous residence before receiving ownership of the land.

Transcontinental Railroad

The contiguous railroad line constructed in the United States between 1863 and 1869 west of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers to connect the Pacific coast at San Francisco Bay

The Navajo Long Walk

The 1864 deportation of the Navajo people by the government of the United States of America. Navajos were forced to walk up to thirteen miles a day at gunpoint from their reservation in what is now Arizona to eastern New Mexico

National Banking System

During the period of the National Banking System (1863–1913),national banks could issue bank notes backed by holdings of eligible U.S. government securities. This paper presents an overview of the legal and financial history of this period. It begins with the reasons theNational Banking System was created.

Sanitary Fairs

Philadelphia’s Civil War sanitary fairs represented the spirit of patriotic volunteerism that pervaded the city during the Civil War. ... Sanitary fairs were civilian-organized bazaars and expositions dedicated to raising funds on behalf of the United States Sanitary Commission

King Cotton Diplomacy

Cotton diplomacy refers to the diplomatic methods employed by the Confederacy during the American Civil War to coerce the United Kingdom and France to support the Confederate war effort by implementing a cotton trade embargo against the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe.

Southern Unionists

Southern Unionists were white people living in the Confederate States of America, opposed to secession, and against the Civil War

Sea Island Experiment

The Port Royal Experiment was a program begun during the American Civil War in which former slaves successfully worked on the land abandoned by plantation owners. In 1861 the Union liberated the Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina and their main harbor, Port Royal.

Ten Percent Plan (Offered by Abraham Lincoln)

It decreed that a state could be reintegrated into the Union when 10% of the 1860 vote count from that state had taken an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to abide by Emancipation.