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Actium

The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Seanear the city of Actium

Alexandrian Donations

The Donations of Alexandria (Autumn 34 BC) were a political act by Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony in which they distributed lands held by Rome and Parthia amongst Cleopatra's children, and granted them many titles, especially for Caesarion, son of Julius Caesar.

Agrippina

a Roman Empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. She was a great-granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus.




After AD 50 known asJulia Augusta Agrippina

Ara Pacis

Altar of Augustan Peace: an altar in Rome dedicated toPax, the Roman goddess of Peace. The monument was commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 BC to honor the return of Augustus to Rome after three years in Hispania and Gaul.




The altar reflects the Augustan vision. of Roman civil religion.

Consulta

The Senate of the Roman Republic passed decrees called senatus consulta, which in form constituted "advice" from the senate to a magistrate. While these decrees did not hold legal force, they usually were obeyed in practice

Cataline

Lucius Sergius Catilina, known in English as Catiline (108–62 BC), was a Roman Senator of the 1st century BC best known for the second Catilinarian conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate. Also known for several acquittals in court, including one for the charge of adultery with a Vestal Virgin.

Cannae

The Battle of Cannae (/ˈkæni/ or /ˈkæneɪ/) is a major battle of the Second Punic War that took place on 2 August 216 BC in Apulia, in southeast Italy. The army of Carthage, under Hannibal, decisively defeated a larger army of theRoman Republic, under the consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. It is regarded both as one of the greatest tactical feats in military history and as one of the worst defeats in Roman history.


Cornelia

Cornelia Scipionis Africana (190 – 100 BC) was the second daughter of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the hero of the Second Punic War, and Aemilia Paulla. She is remembered as a prototypical example of a virtuous Roman woman.

Cato The Elder

Marcus Porcius Cato, was a Roman statesman and historian (first to write in Latin), commonly referred to as Cato Censorius (the Censor), Cato Sapiens (the Wise), Cato Priscus (the Ancient), Cato Major, or Cato the Elder (to distinguish him from his great-grandson, Cato the Younger); known for his conservatismand opposition to Hellenization.




(234 BC – 149 BC): A Roman statesman, commonly referred to as Censorius, Sapiens, Priscus, or Major, Cato the Elder, or Cato the Censor. He was known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization. He came of an ancient Plebeian family. He advocated the destruction of Carthage, going so far as to claim that Carthaginians were only useful dead or as slaves. Scipio Aemilianus, who burned Carthage to the ground, credited Cato as the one who gave him the order to devastate Carthage.

Concordia Ordinium

Cicero aspired to a republican system dominated by a ruling aristocratic class of men, "who so conducted themselves as to win for their policy the approval of all good men." Further, he sought a concordia ordinum, an alliance between the senators and the equites. This "harmony between the social classes," which he later developed into a consensus omnium bonorum to include tota Italia (all citizens of Italy), demonstrated Cicero's foresight as a statesman.

Catullus

Gaius Valerius Catullus (/kəˈtʌləs/; c. 84 – 54 BC) was a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote in the neotericstyle of poetry. His surviving works are still read widely, and continue to influence poetry and other forms of art.

Cirta

Caesar's conquest of Northern Africa officially brought Cirta under direct Roman rule in 46 BC.[8] It was during the rule of Augustus, however, when Cirta's territory expanded and assimilated into the empire. Augustus split Cirta into communities, or pagis, dividing Numidians and newly settled Romans.[9]

Carmen Saeculare

The Carmen Saeculare (Latin for "Secular Hymn" or "Song of the Ages") is a hymn in Sapphic meter written by the Roman poet Horace. It was commissioned by the Roman emperor Augustus in 17 BC. The hymn was sung by a chorus of twenty-seven maidens and the same number of youths on the occasion of the Ludi Saeculares (Secular Games), which celebrated the end of one saeculum (typically 110 years in length) and the beginning of another.

Carrhae

The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the town of Carrhae. The Parthian Spahbod ("General") Surena decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman invasion force under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus. It is commonly seen as one of the earliest and most importantbattles between the Roman and Parthian empires and one of the most crushing defeats in Roman history.

Claudius

Claudius (/ˈklɔːdiəs/; Latin: Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus;[1][2] 1 August 10 BC – 13 October 54 AD) was Roman emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37.

Commodus

Commodus (/ˈkɒmədəs/; Latin: Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus;[1] 31 August 161 AD – 31 December 192 AD), was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180.

Dacia

In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia (/ˈdeɪʃiə, -ʃə/) was the land inhabited by the Dacians. The Greeks referred to them as the Getae, which were specifically a branch of the Thracians north of the Haemus range.

Domitian

Domitian (/dəˈmɪʃən, -iən/; Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus;[2] 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) wasRoman emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty.Domitian's youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish–Roman War. This situation continued under the rule of his father Vespasian, who became emperor in 69 following the civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. While Titus held a great many offices under the rule of his father, Domitian was left with honours but no responsibilities. Vespasian died in 79 and was succeeded by Titus, whose own reign came to an unexpected end when he was struck by a fatal illness in 81. The following day Domitian was declared Emperor by the Praetorian Guard, commencing a reign that lasted fifteen years – longer than any man who had ruled since Tiberius.[3]

De Rerum Natura

De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience. The poem explores Epicurean physics. Atomism. the nature of the mind and soul; explanations of sensation and thought; the development of the world and its phenomena; and explains a variety of celestial and terrestrial phenomena. The universe described in the poem operates according to these physical principles, guided by fortuna, "chance," and not the divine intervention of thetraditional Roman deities.

Edict of Caracalla

The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin: "Constitution [or Edict] of Antoninus") (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution) was an edictissued in 212,[1] by the Roman Emperor Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given theoretical Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.Before 212, for the most part only inhabitants of Italy held full Roman citizenship. Colonies of Romans established in other provinces, Romans (or their descendants) living in provinces, the inhabitants of various cities throughout the Empire, and small numbers of local nobles (such as kings of client countries) held full citizenship also. Provincials, on the other hand, were usually non-citizens, although some held the Latin Right.

Fasces

Fasces (/ˈfæsiːz/, Latin pronunciation: [ˈfas.keːs], a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning "bundle")[1] is a bound bundle of wooden rods, sometimes including an axe with its blade emerging. The fasces had its origin in the Etruscan civilization, and was passed on to ancient Rome, where it symbolized a magistrate's power and jurisdiction. The image has survived in the modern world as a representation of magisterial or collective power. The fasces frequently occurs as a charge in heraldry, it is present on an older design of the United States ten cent coin and behind the podium in the United States House of Representatives, it is used as the symbol of a number of Italian syndicalist groups, including the Unione Sindacale Italiana, and it was the origin of the name of theNational Fascist Party in Italy (from which the term fascism is derived).

Fabius Maximus

Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator (/ˈmæksɪməs/; c. 280 BC – 203 BC) was a Roman politician and general, who was born in Rome around 280 BC and died in Rome in 203 BC. He was a Roman Consul five times (233 BC, 228 BC, 215 BC, 214 BC and 209 BC) and was twice appointed Dictator, in 221 and again in 217 BC. He reached the office of Roman Censor in 230 BC. His agnomen Cunctator (cognate to the English noun cunctation) means "delayer" in Latin, and refers to his strategy in deploying the troops during the Second Punic War. He is widely regarded as the father of guerrilla warfare due to his, at the time, novel strategy of targeting enemy supply lines in light of being largely outnumbered.[1] His cognomen Verrucosus means "warty", a reference to a wart above his upper lip.[2]

First Triumvirate

The First Triumvirate was a political alliance between three prominent Roman politicians (triumvirs) which included Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great) and Marcus Licinius Crassus. "Pompey and Caesar now formed a pact, jointly swearing to oppose all legislation of which any one of them might disapprove. It lasted from approximately 59 BCE to Crassus' defeat by the Parthians in 53 BCE.[1] The alliance was "not at heart a union of those with the same political ideals and ambitions", but one where "all [were] seeking personal advantage."[2]

Julia Mamaea

Julia Avita Mamaea (14 or 29 August after 180–235) was the second daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Syrian noble Gaius Julius Avitus Alexianus. She was a niece of empress Julia Domna; emperor LuciusSeptimius Severus and sister of Julia Soaemias Bassiana. She was born and raised in Emesa (modern Homs, Syria).

Lucullus

Lucius Licinius Lucullus (/luːˈkʌləs/; 118 – 57/56 BC)[2] was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla. In the culmination of over twenty years of almost continuous military and government service, he became the main conqueror of the eastern kingdoms in the course of the Third Mithridatic War, exhibiting extraordinary generalship in diverse situations, most famously during the siege of Cyzicus, 73-72 BC, and at the Battle of Tigranocerta in Armenian Arzanene, 69 BC. His command style received unusually favourable attention from ancient military experts, and his campaigns appear to have been studied as examples of skillful generalship.[3]

Latifundia

A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land. The latifundia (Latin: lātus, "spacious" + fundus, "farm, estate")[1] of Roman history were greatlanded estates, specializing in agriculture destined for export: grain, olive oil, or wine. They were characteristic of Magna Graecia and Sicily, of Egypt and the North African Maghreb and of Hispania Baetica in southern Spain. The latifundia were the closest approximation to industrialized agriculture in Antiquity, and their economics depended upon slave labour.

Lepidus

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] (born c. 89 or 88 BC, died late 13 or early 12 BC)[2] was aRoman patrician who was triumvir with Octavian (the future Augustus) and Mark Antony, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic. Lepidus had previously been a close ally of Julius Caesar.Lepidus has always been portrayed as the weakest member of the triumvirate. He was disparaged by a number of ancient historians as feeble and untrustworthy. He typically appears as an easily marginalised figure in depictions of the events of the era, most notably in Shakespeare's plays. While some scholars have endorsed this view, others argue that the evidence is insufficient to discount the distorting effects of propaganda by Lepidus' opponents, principally Cicero, and later, Augustus.

Manilian Law

Like the Lex Gabinia, the Lex Manilia awarded more military power to Pompey. Because these laws gave supreme military power to one man, they did not meet with the approval of the traditional aristocracy. However, despite Pompey’s growing unpopularity with the wealthy aristocracy, his popularity with the common people was at its peak. This enabled the passing of the two laws by the Popular Assembly, an unorthodox, but not a completely unfamiliar way of bypassing the senate to enact legislation ( These laws reflect the constant political struggle between the optimates and the populares. But, more importantly, they show that the Senate was not always in control of the passage of legislation.

Marcus Livinus Drusus

The younger Marcus Livius Drusus, son of Marcus Livius Drusus, was tribune of the plebeians in 91 BC. In the manner of Gaius Gracchus, he set out with comprehensive plans, but his aim was to strengthen senatorial rule. He removed the jury courts from the jurisdiction of the equestrians in retaliation for their unjustified condemnation of Publius Rutilius Rufus in 92 BC and replaced it with a mixed jury of senators and equestrians.



He also passed a bill that would have doubled the number of senators from roughly 300 to 600, thus placating the most powerful of the equestrians who wished to become senators or have some of their family become senators. To gain support from the plebeians, he set up a commission to grant them more land, both around Rome and in new colonies (which was one of only two that was approved by the Senate during the late Republic) and reduced the price of grain which he proposed to pay for by using devaluation of the currency.

Meditations

Meditations (Τὰ εἰς ἑαυτόν, Ta eis heauton, literally "thoughts/writings addressed to himself") is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor 161–180 CE, setting forth his ideas on Stoic philosophy.Marcus Aurelius wrote the 12 books of the Meditations in Koine Greek[1] as a source for his own guidance and self-improvement.[2]

Nerva

from 96 to 98. Nerva became Emperor at the age of sixty-five, after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Under Nero, he was a member of the imperial entourage and played a vital part in exposing thePisonian conspiracy of 65. Later, as a loyalist to the Flavians, he attained consulships in 71 and 90 during the reigns ofVespasian and Domitian respectively.

Optimates

The optimates ("Best Men," singular optimas; also known as boni, "Good Men") were the traditionalist Senatorial majority of the late Roman Republic. They wished to limit the power of the popular assemblies and the Tribunes of the Plebs, and to extend the power of the Senate, which was viewed as more dedicated to the interests of the aristocrats who held the reins of power. In particular, they were concerned with the rise of individual generals who, backed by the tribunate, the assemblies and their own soldiers, could shift power from the Senate and aristocracy. They were opposed by the populares.

Populares

Populares ("favoring the people", singular popularis) were leaders in the late Roman Republic who relied on the people's assemblies and tribunate to acquire political power. They are regarded in modern scholarship as in opposition to the optimates, who are identified with the conservative interests of a senatorial elite. The populares themselves, however, were also of senatorial rank and might be patricians, noble plebeians or Equites.

Phillipics

A philippic is a fiery, damning speech, or tirade, delivered to condemn a particular political actor.The term originated with Demosthenes, Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens who delivered several attacks on Philip II of Macedon in the 4th century BC.

Polybius

Polybius (/pəˈlɪbiəs/; Greek: Πολύβιος, Polýbios; c. 200 – c. 118 BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic Period noted for his work, The Histories, which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail. The work describes the rise of the Roman Republic to the status of dominance in the ancient Mediterranean world. Polybius is also renowned for his ideas concerning the separation of powers in government, later used in Montesquieu's The Spirit of the Laws and in the drafting of the United States Constitution.

Pontifex Maximus

The Pontifex Maximus (Latin, literally: "greatest pontiff" or "greatest bridge-builder") was the high priest of the College of Pontiffs(Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome. This was the most important position in the ancient Roman religion, open only topatricians until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. A distinctly religious office under the early Roman Republic, it gradually became politicized until, beginning with Augustus, it was subsumed into the Imperial office. Its last use with reference to the emperors is in inscriptions of Gratian[1] (reigned 375–383) who, however, then decided to omit the words "pontifex maximus" from his title.[2][3]

Pharsalus

The whole area suffered great destruction during the Roman Civil War. The Battle of Pharsalus, where Julius Caesardefeated Pompey and changed the course of the Roman Republic forever, took place in 48 BC in the fields of the Pharsalian Plain.

Res Gestae

Res Gestae Divi Augusti (Latin: "The Deeds of the Divine Augustus"), is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor,Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments.[1] The Res Gestae is especially significant because it gives an insight into the image Augustus portrayed to the Roman people. Various inscriptions of the Res Gestae have been found scattered across the former Roman Empire. The inscription itself is a monument to the establishment of the Julio-Claudian dynastythat was to follow Augustus.

Rubicon

In 49 BC, perhaps on January 10, C. Julius Caesar led a single legion, Legio XIII Gemina, south over the Rubicon from Cisalpine Gaul to Italy to make his way to Rome. In doing so, he (deliberately) broke the law on imperium and made armed conflict inevitable. Suetonius depicts Caesar as undecided as he approached the river, and attributes the crossing to a supernatural apparition. It was reported that Caesar dined with Sallust, Hirtius, Oppius, Lucius Balbus and Sulpicus Rufus on the night after his famous crossing into Italy January 10.[20]

Spartacus

A Thracian gladiator who was one of the escaped slave leader in the Third Servile War, a major slave uprising against the Roman Republic. The gladiator rebellion, interpreted by some as an example of oppressed people fighting for their freedom against a slave-owning oligarchy, has been an inspiration to many political thinkers. Spartacus fought against Crassus too. In 71 BCE there was a battle in the territory of Senerchia.

Scipio Aemilianus

As consul he commanded at the final siege and destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, and was a leader of the senators opposed to the Gracchi in 133 BC. Scipio declared that the fate of Carthage might one day be Rome’s. Adopted son of Scipio Africanus and natural son to Lucius Paullus, one of the consuls who led the Roman army and dies at the battle of the Cannae. Significance? cos (he fkd up carthage.)

Sextus Pompey

Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey (67 BC – 35 BC),[1] was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the Second Triumvirate. His father was Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great). Shakespeare had him as a major character in his playAntony and Cleopatra (1606–07).

Sosigenes

Sosigenes of Alexandria was a Greek astronomer who, according to Pliny the Elder, was consulted by Julius Caesar for the design of the Julian calendar.[1][2]Little is known about him apart from Pliny's Natural History. Sosigenes appears in Book 18, 210-212:"... There were three main schools, the Chaldaean, the Egyptian, and the Greek; and to these a fourth was added in our country by Caesar during his dictatorship, who with the assistance of the learned astronomer Sosigenes (Sosigene perito scientiae eius adhibito) brought the separate years back into conformity with the course of the sun."

Sejanus

Lucius Aelius Seianus (20 BC – October 18, AD 31), commonly known as Sejanus, was an ambitious soldier, friend and confidant of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. An equestrian by birth, Sejanus rose to power as prefect of the Roman imperial bodyguard, known as the Praetorian Guard, of which he was commander from AD 14 until his death in AD 31.While the Praetorian Guard was formally established under Emperor Augustus, Sejanus introduced a number of reforms which saw the unit evolve beyond a mere bodyguard, into a powerful and influential branch of the government involved in public security, civil administration and ultimately political intercession; changes which would have a lasting impact on the course of the Principate.

Twelve Tables

According to Roman tradition, the Law of the Twelve Tables (Latin: Leges Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law. The Tables consolidated earlier traditions into an enduring set of laws.[1][2]

Titus

Titus (Latin: Titus Flāvius Caesar Vespasiānus Augustus;[a] 30 December 39 – 13 September 81) was Roman Emperorfrom 79 to 81. A member of the Flavian dynasty, Titus succeeded his father Vespasian upon his death, thus becoming the first Roman Emperor to come to the throne after his own biological father.

Valerian

Valerian (/vəˈlɪəriən/; Latin: Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus;[1] 193/195/200 – 260 or 264, also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260 CE. He was taken captive by Sassanian king Shapur I after the Battle of Edessa, becoming the only Roman Emperor who was captured as a prisoner of war, causing instability in the Empire.

Verres

Gaius Verres was a Roman magistrate, notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily. Verres initially supported Gaius Marius and the populares but soon went over to the optimates. Sulla gave him a present of land and secured him against punishment for embezzlement. During 74 BCE is when he was governor of Sicily and he was embezzling money. Exiled from Rome in 70 BCE, when his subjects brought him to court, using Cicero as their lawyer. Cicero won against Verres, marking his first great victory as a lawyer.

Year of the 4 Emperors

The Year of the Four Emperors was a year in the history of the Roman Empire, AD 69, in which four emperors ruled in succession: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, and Vespasian.The suicide of emperor Nero, in 68, was followed by a brief period of civil war, the first Roman civil war since Mark Antony's death in 30 BC. Between June of 68 and December of 69, Rome witnessed the successive rise and fall of Galba, Otho andVitellius until the final accession of Vespasian, first of the Imperial Flavian dynasty, in July 69. The social, military and political upheavals of the period had Empire-wide repercussions, which included the outbreak of the Batavian rebellion.

Zama

Zama (202 BCE): marked the final and decisive end of the Second Punic War. A Roman army led by Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus defeated a Carthaginian force led by the Hannibal. Soon after this defeat on their home ground, the Carthaginian senate sued for peace. The battle turned in favor of the Roman's and Scipio won the battle. Unlike the Treaty that ended the First Punic War, the terms Carthage acceded to were so punishing that it was never able to challenge Rome for supremacy of the Mediterranean again.