Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/26

Click to flip

26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1638-41

Francesco Borromini


Undulating form
Convex/ Concave


The body of the church is nestled in an "L" shape. 


Dedicated to St. Charles Borromeo


Strong connection to geometry.


Borromini was interested in the symbolic nature of space


Idea of '...

Francesco Borromini




Undulating form


Convex/ Concave




The body of the church is nestled in an "L" shape.




Dedicated to St. Charles Borromeo




Strong connection to geometry.




Borromini was interested in the symbolic nature of space




Idea of 'facades' that one facade leads into another. A "single unit"




Building is fitted into the environment and not a free-standing structure.




The interior shape is based on the "holy trinity" the triangles create an oval




Interior dome is comprised of rectangles, squares, crosses, and hexagons. Borromini was inspired by the Santa Constanza outside city of Rome. Interconnecting shapes that resolve themselves




Light unifies the space. Carving



Piazza San Pietro, Rome, 1656

Gianlorenzo Bernini


"Arms" of the church. Reaching out to bring in the faithful


Using art to re-affirm faith of believers


Bring people back into the church who may be straying away


There are four rows of doric columns in travertine


Place...

Gianlorenzo Bernini




"Arms" of the church. Reaching out to bring in the faithful




Using art to re-affirm faith of believers




Bring people back into the church who may be straying away




There are four rows of doric columns in travertine




Place where you can stand and the colonnades all line up and you cannot see the four rows of columns


Sant’Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, Italy, 1658-1670

Gianlorenzo Bernini


Giant order of architecture


Movement in steps flooding into the street


Church dedicated to Saint Andrew. Saint Andrew is the main focus of the painting and is seen on the x-cross. He then is seen being carried up into hea...

Gianlorenzo Bernini




Giant order of architecture




Movement in steps flooding into the street




Church dedicated to Saint Andrew. Saint Andrew is the main focus of the painting and is seen on the x-cross. He then is seen being carried up into heaven




Ceiling is about lightness and divine grace. The structural ribs are like rays of light emanating from the dove in the center dome.




Brings the eye up-wards.




People looking down onto the congregation.




Beauty of death

The Forbidden City, Beijing.

Ming Dynasty (mostly)


Home of the Emperor


Spans an enormous amount and broken down into several halls 


Emperor only met with high officials. Many people did not see him. Hence the title "Forbidden City"


Wood material

Ming Dynasty (mostly)




Home of the Emperor




Spans an enormous amount and broken down into several halls




Emperor only met with high officials. Many people did not see him. Hence the title "Forbidden City"




Wood material




Meridian Gate to get into emperors place




It took 20 years and 1 million workers




The dragon, lots of symbolic detailing



Katsura Imperial Villa, c. 1650, Kyoto, Japan

Princes Toshihito & Toshitada

Princes Toshihito & Toshitada




The building of refined taste




Free standing tea-house




Tea garden permeates


the inside.




Bringing together nature and building and how they complement each other




Shoin building white walls and wood beams




Finest Material




Overlapping wood shingle roof




Walls with paper and stencils




Grounds laid out like a stroll garden




Tatami straw floors,



Pyramid of Kukulcan / “Castillo,” Chichén Itzá, Yucatan, Mexico ,900-1521

Mayan Civilization

Served as a temple to the god Kukulkan

Serpent seen crawling down the pyramid

The temple served as a Sacrificial and calendar structure

Mayan Civilization




Served as a temple to the god Kukulkan




Serpent seen crawling down the pyramid




The temple served as a Sacrificial and calendar structure




Theme of the earth, calendar, cosmos





East Front Palais du Louvre, Paris, 1667-7

Claude Perrault

The Louvre was originally a small 12th century defense against the normans

Bernini travelled from Italy originally to take part in the competition for the re-design. He was not elected.

Built under Louis 14th the building was me...

Claude Perrault




The Louvre was originally a small 12th century defense against the normans




Bernini travelled from Italy originally to take part in the competition for the re-design. He was not elected.




Built under Louis 14th the building was meant to be grand and authoritative. Louis is this absolute ruler.




Columns grouped in pairs, hallmark of French Baroque architecture









Château de Versailles, France, begun 1669

Louis Le Vau & Jules Hardouin-Mansart

French Baroque Architecture

Louis 14th wanted the palace of Versailles to be build on the grounds of his father's old hunting lodge. Though it was a poor location to place a palace, Louis wanted to show his ...

Louis Le Vau & Jules Hardouin-Mansart




French Baroque Architecture




Louis 14th wanted the palace of Versailles to be build on the grounds of his father's old hunting lodge. Though it was a poor location to place a palace, Louis wanted to show his resilience and his ability to overcome nature.




One of the most well known spaces is the hall of mirrors that houses banquettes and other events.




Versailles became the absolute home of the French aristocracy. France was run from here

St. Paul’s Cathedral, London, 1675-1711

Christopher Wren

The church of the public

After the destruction of the St.Paul's Cathedral from a fire, many people wanted a Gothic church, however, Wren designed something in the modern neo-classical style of the time

The building is in the ...

Christopher Wren




The church of the public




After the destruction of the St.Paul's Cathedral from a fire, many people wanted a Gothic church, however, Wren designed something in the modern neo-classical style of the time




The building is in the shape of a cross with the dome over the crossing




Wren created a blind second story to conceal the buttresses. Without the second story the dome would have been out of scale




Wren traveled to France and brought back the double columns




There are actually two domes an inner dome and an outer dome




Outer dome, flattened on top, consists of a wooden frame with a lead surface supported by an individual




Catenary arch-it supports itself without needing buttressing.



Panthéon (Church of Sainte-Geneviève), Paris, 1755-1792

Jacques-Germain Soufflot

Soufflot listened to the teachings of Laugier that architecture needed to be practical and that all aspects needed to function

For example, the pilasters are linked to the strutural grid column grid. 

Jacques-Germain Soufflot




Soufflot listened to the teachings of Laugier that architecture needed to be practical and that all aspects needed to function




For example, the pilasters are linked to the structural grid established by the columns.





Project for a Cenotaph to Sir Isaac Newton, 1784

Etienne-Louis Boullée

Boullee's Cenotaph for Isaac Newton is a funerary monument celebrating a figure interred elsewhere. 

The small sarcophagus for Newton is placed at the lower pole of the sphere. The design of the memorial creates the eff...

Etienne-Louis Boullée




Boullee's Cenotaph for Isaac Newton is a funerary monument celebrating a figure interred elsewhere.




The small sarcophagus for Newton is placed at the lower pole of the sphere. The design of the memorial creates the effect of day and night. The night effect occurs when the sarcophagus is illuminated by the sunlight coming through the holes in the vaulting.

Royal Saltworks of Chaux, Arc-et-Senans, 1775-79

Claude-Nicholas Ledoux


Directors Pavilion is for monitoring the people


Circles represent nature


Saltworks compound


High archie was placed on important buildings


Ledoux also wanted to build a city on the plot, however, due to the French R...

Claude-Nicholas Ledoux




Directors Pavilion is for monitoring the people




Circles represent nature


Squares were the human footprint




Saltworks compound




High archie was placed on important buildings




Ledoux also wanted to build a city on the plot, however, due to the French Revolution and budget cuts many things were not built

The Park at Stourhead, Wiltshire, England. Laid out1743, executed 1744-1765

Henry Flitcroft and Henry Hoare

Henry Flitcroft and Henry Hoare











Strawberry Hill, Twickenham (nearLondon), 1749-1776

Horace Walpole (& the Committee of Taste)


Strawberry Hill was the first house without any existing medieval fabric to be [re]built from scratch in the Gothic style and the first to be based on actual historic examples, rather than an extrapolati...

Horace Walpole (& the Committee of Taste)




Strawberry Hill was the first house without any existing medieval fabric to be [re]built from scratch in the Gothic style and the first to be based on actual historic examples, rather than an extrapolation of the Gothic vocabulary first developed by William Kent. As such it has a claim to be the starting point of the Gothic Revival."




Gothic Picturesque





Bank of England, 1794-1810

John Soane


English economy in a poor state they had to borrow from foreign banks


Soane invented an architectural language based on flat vaults and pendentives to create a dynamic zoningof spaces



Design, with its small passages that contrast...

John Soane




English economy in a poor state they had to borrow from foreign banks




Soane invented an architectural language based on flat vaults and pendentives to create a dynamic zoningof spaces




Design, with its small passages that contrast with larger spaces, could be described as a picturesque form ofclassicism that surprises with unexpected juxtapositions.

Virginia State House, Richmond, 1785-1792

Thomas Jefferson

Roman model from France for an American state house

A literal interpretation of a classical temple as an embodiment of these republican ideals. 

One of the first times a temple front was used as a model for a civic institution...

Thomas Jefferson




Roman model from France for an American state house




A literal interpretation of a classical temple as an embodiment of these republican ideals.




One of the first times a temple front was used as a model for a civic institution.




Emphasized the natural beauty of the landscape.

Plan for Washington, 1791

Pierre Charles L’Enfant

Over the base pattern of the urban grid, L’Enfant imposed a Baroque-style web of avenues 

L’Enfant’s design calls to mind the gardens of Versailles because the grand avenues of the
former are similar to the al...

Pierre Charles L’Enfant




Over the base pattern of the urban grid, L’Enfant imposed a Baroque-style web of avenues




L’Enfant’s design calls to mind the gardens of Versailles because the grand avenues of theformer are similar to the allées of the latter.




The Capitol and the White House are also connected by one of several diagonals—PennsylvaniaAvenue—a Baroque device first articulated for Rome under Sixtus V in his attempt to link thegreat pilgrimage sites of that city.




Plan brings the Counter-Reformation ideal of the freestanding monumental building in line withthe notion of a city as a landscape traversed by grand ceremonial approaches.




The siting of both the Capitol and the White House away from the river’s edge and fronted bylawns derives from English country house prototypes.

Houses of Parliament, London, 1836-67

Charles Barry & AWN Pugin

After Westminster Palace had burned down in 1834, the British government announced a
competition for a new building to be designed in the English Perpendicular Gothic style, and to
harmonize with the neighboring West...

Charles Barry & AWN Pugin




After Westminster Palace had burned down in 1834, the British government announced acompetition for a new building to be designed in the English Perpendicular Gothic style, and toharmonize with the neighboring Westminster Abbey, the thirteenth-century church where Englishmonarchs are crowned




Barry was responsible for the basic plan of the new building, whose symmetry suggests thebalance of powers within the British parliamentary system; Pugin provided the intricate Gothicdecoration laid over Barry s essentially Classical plan.




An internal spine, which allows for a special sovereign’s entrance at the southeast corner of thebuilding, is buffered by various open air courts that allowed light into the various rooms.




The exterior—done almost uniformly in a soft, yellowish limestone—was designed in aPerpendicular Gothic style that replicated the taste of the 15th century.




Old medieval world of faith, new of money.




Interested in upholding the classic and moving away from the industrialization/ modern

Altes Museum, Berlin, 1823-30

Karl Friedrich Schinkel


The Altes Museum (Old Museum) was commissioned to display the royal art collection, and wasthus built directly across from the Baroque royal palace on an island on the Spree River in theheart of Berlin. 


Schinkel design...

Karl Friedrich Schinkel




The Altes Museum (Old Museum) was commissioned to display the royal art collection, and wasthus built directly across from the Baroque royal palace on an island on the Spree River in theheart of Berlin.




Schinkel designed the building as a great block with two interior courtyards and a central space,the interior of which is modeled on the Pantheon.




The dome is not, however, visible from the outside. Instead, the front consists of a row ofcolumns, like a great Greek stoa, elevated on a platform above the surroundings.




The museums imposing façade consists of a screen of 18 Ionic columns raised on a platformwith a central staircase.

Bibliothèque Ste. Geneviève, Paris, 1838-50

Henri Labrouste

Henri Labrouste argued in favor of the use of iron in France. 

Bibliothèque St.-Geneviève (designed 1843, built 1845–51), with its slender columns and
billowing domes, coexists with stone walls, themselves without any tra...

Henri Labrouste




Henri Labrouste argued in favor of the use of iron in France.




Bibliothèque St.-Geneviève (designed 1843, built 1845–51), with its slender columns andbillowing domes, coexists with stone walls, themselves without any trace of classical columnsand pilasters.




The distinction between the two floors is made on the outside by a thin entablature, with acontinuous row of garlands suspended beneath it.




Below, the wall is punctuated by relatively small, Romanesque-style round-headedwindows.




Above, from end to end, runs an arcade, with pilasters forming a regular rhythm acrossthe facade; it is distinctly Roman in flavor.




The lower two-thirds of the arcade are filled in to allow for a window in each bay.




The whole is topped by a stripped-down cornice, lightly decorated in a neo-Greekmanner.

Crystal Palace, London, 1851

Joseph Paxton

Designed and engineered by Sir Joseph Paxton, an innovator of steel and glass greenhouses. 

Crystal Palace was composed of thin, lightweight elements that were mass-produced and
assembled on site. 

Tension wires kept the stru...

Joseph Paxton




Designed and engineered by Sir Joseph Paxton, an innovator of steel and glass greenhouses.




Crystal Palace was composed of thin, lightweight elements that were mass-produced andassembled on site.




Tension wires kept the structure from falling over.




On display were machines and mass-produced products of all types.




The colonies and distant lands were also represented—but by their handcrafted products and rawmaterials.

Opéra (Opera House) Paris, 1861-75

Charles Garnier

pPart of the rebuilding process and was built at an intersection of Haussmann’s grand avenues. 

Accessible from all directions, the Opéra was designed with transportation and vehicular traffic in mind, and
with a modern cast...

Charles Garnier




pPart of the rebuilding process and was built at an intersection of Haussmann’s grand avenues.




Accessible from all directions, the Opéra was designed with transportation and vehicular traffic in mind, andwith a modern cast-iron internal frame; yet in other respects it is a masterpiece of historicism based mostly onthe Baroque style, revived here to recall an earlier period of greatness in France.




The front, when taken as a whole, could also be seen as a very wide triumphal arch.




Massive façade, featuring a row of paired columns over an arcade, was intended to recall the seventeenthcenturywing of the Louvre, an association meant to suggest the continuity of the French nation and to flatterEmperor Napoleon III by comparing him favorably with King Louis XIV.




Highlight of the interior may not have been the spectacle on stage so much as that on the grand, sweepingBaroque staircase, where members of the Paris elite displayed themselves.




The staircase that lies between the entrance narthex and the theater is itself a three-dimensional theaterintended to allow opera goers to see and be seen, the encounters themselves constituting an elaborate socialritual.




As Garnier said, the purpose of the Opéra was to fulfill human desires: to hear, to see, and to be seen.



Urban Modernization Scheme for Paris, 1853-70

Georges Haussmann

-In 1848, after rioting over living conditions erupted in French cities, Napoleon III launched sweeping new
reforms.
-riots devastated Paris’s central neighborhoods, and Georges-Eugène Haussmann was engaged to redraw the
...

Georges Haussmann




-In 1848, after rioting over living conditions erupted in French cities, Napoleon III launched sweeping newreforms.-riots devastated Paris’s central neighborhoods, and Georges-Eugène Haussmann was engaged to redraw thestreet grid and rebuild the city.




Napoleon III was eager to transform Paris into the leading capital of the world.




Haussmann’s ideal was to impose a new rational plan of broad avenues, parks, and open public places uponthe medieval heart of Paris.




Unlike earlier urban design approaches in Rome and elsewhere that used boulevards in relationship to royalpalaces or churches, Haussmann’s new streets were laid outaccording to pragmatic and economic considerations.




They destroyed large parts of medieval Paris, displacing thousands of inhabitants, mainly from the lowerclasses.




Never before in the recent history had such a large part of a city been leveled and rebuilt.




The new streets were lined with apartments and provided with sewage pipes and gas lines.




Haussmann’s Paris would become the model for cities around the world, such as Buenos Aires, Cairo, Rome,and Saigon.





Les Barrières, Paris, 1784-87

Claude-Nicholas Ledoux





Regent’s Park & Regent Street, London, 1814-30

John Nash

The Red House, Bexleyheath, 1859

William Morris & Philip Webb