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81 Cards in this Set

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WHat were speakeasies?
Underground liquor bars, that sold liquor illegally, during Prohibition. Usually run by mobsters.
What was the Harlem Renaissance?
The flowering of art, literature, and music in the U.S. centred in Harlem by the African AMerican community.
YOUR favorite era.
What was the Scopes Trial?
Infamous 1925 trial that not only apprehended biology teacher John T. Scopes of teaching evolution to his HS class (illegal), but also the clash between Christian Doctrine, and Darwin's theories of evolution and natural selection.
Who were the Fundamentalists?
Movement supporting return to traditional principles, especially in religion.
The basics.

Who were "The Lost Generation"?
Coined by Gertrude Stein, described the group of AMerican literary notables living in Paris (WWII-Great Depression). Or, generation of youths coming of age during or after WWII.
What was the Great Migration?
THe long overdue mass exodus of Southern blacks to the North as soon as WWI rolled around. THey took over jobs that were left vacant by draftees and others. Working side by side with the women.
Describe the atmosphere of the 1920's?
It was a time of carefree fun, and prosperity, especially in wealth. America had become known as the foremost lender inthe world.
What were some of the causes +/ effects of the stock marker crash? Say also when it happened.
Occured in late OCtober of 1929, spanned from Black Thursday to Black Tuesday.

* The stock market was BOOMING in the 20's so many people were investing in the market through SPECULATIVE BUYING.
*Banks lent too much money to people.
*This speculative buying led to prices of stocks to rise to absurd levels, as people bought more and more stock.
*as the bubble reached its peak and popped, investors tried to quickly rid themselves of their shares before they became useless.
WHat was the Bonus March of 1932?
Assembly of 20,000 WWI vets and their families demonstrating on Washington, demanding immediate payment of their forepromised bonuses (which they were not given yet, w/c was granted by the Adjusted Service Certificate Law of 1924.
Who was Calvin Coolige?
Was Warren G. Harding Vice President, and later APresident when Harding dies in 1923. Was reelected himself in 1924. Supported Laissez-faire. Conservative from Massachusetts. Declined running for office again in 1928.Wanted to get rid of progressive legislation, and provide more benefits for big businesses.
What is Laissez-faire?
Where the government agrees to leave businesses alone.
Who was Warren G. Harding?
The 29th president, his election brought benefits for big businesses, and conservatism. His isolationist stance let down Wilson's dreams of U.S. joining the League of Nations. His presidential career was plagued by scandals, the most notable being the Teapot Dome Scandal (in 1923, Cabinet secretaries, and naval officers were bribed into allowing big businesses usage of federal oil stores). Died in 1923 that same year and was succeeded by his VP; Calvin Coolidge.
WHo was Franklin Delano Roosevelt?
Paralyzed from the waist down, he was made to realize the plight of those he represented, and he oculd sympathize with them more. One of the 1932 candidates easily winning against Hoover. Sought mainly to end the Depression, utilizing his New Deal legislation, and policies designed to do just that. Started his FIRESIDE CHATS in order to inform the AMerican people of what exactly was happening with the country, domestically, or foreign. Led us through the Depression, and WWII quite successfully. Died while still in office, April 12, 1945.
Who was Herbert Hoover?
31st president of the United States. Former millionaire and engineer. Appointed head of the American Food Administration and the American Relief Administration. Sent so much food overseas to the soldiers and millions of other people in Central Europe that were starving. Became president in 1928, beating out ALfred E. SMith. Though reputed to have been a humanitarian in WWI, he was ill-equipped for guiding AMerica through the Depression. He believed in RUGGED INDIVIDUALISM, in that, the government was not obligated to help you, you had to help yourself. Because of his laissez faire stance, he could've possibly curbed the Depression, but when he tried ot enforce his RFC program, it was too late.
Who was Alfred E. Smith?
Democratic candidate in the 1928 election against Republican candidate, Herbert Hoover.
How did Americans make fun of Herbert Hoover in the 1930's?
THey termed negative products of the Depression after Hoover; Hooverville: series of poor villages that popped all over the place as more and more became poverty-stricken consisting of temporary little shanties; Hooverflags: an outturned pocket sticking out; Hooverleather: pieces of cardboard used as shoelaces.
What was Herbert Hoover's philosphy on the orle of the government?
He believed in rugged individualism; where the government was not at all obligated to help you, even if you are poverty-stricken.
What was Eleanor Roosevelt's role during her husband's presidency?
SHe was considered by him, his equal. SHe would use her position as First Lady to advance what parts of her husband's aganda that he could not do, like for equal treatment of African Americans, or women's rights.
Describe Social Security.
initially signed into law by FDR in 1935, it covered unemployment insurance, OA insurance, Survivors insurance, and Disabilities insurance.
Describe the CIvilian COnservation Corps.
Work relief program for young men established in 1933 by FDR in his first HUNDRED DAYS.
Describe the Tennessee Valley Authority.
Created in 1933 by FDR during his first HUNDRED DAYS. Meant ot provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, and economic development in the Tennessee River Valley, which was one of the poorest areas of the United States.
Describe the Federal Emergency Relief Administration.
Established as a result of the Emergency Relief Act, but new and improved from Hoover's Emergency Relief Administration. Headed by one of FDR's most influential advisors, Harry Hopkins.
Why did the U.S. go to war in 1941?
Because of the Pearl Harbour attacks, which had shocked Americans to their cores, up to that point being a "neutral" country. It was called by FDR as "a day that will live in infamy".
What was D-Day?
June 6, 1944; Battle of Normandy and the commencement of the full-force besieging of Nazi forces. Ended with Paris' liberation.
What was V-E Day?
May 8, 1945; Allies formally celebrated thedefeat of the Nazis in Europe.
Who was CHester NImitz?
Commander in Chief of American and Allied Pacific forces. Won the Battles of Midway and Coral Sea, as well as the Soloman Islands Campaign.
Who was Dougalas MacArthur?
Supreme Commander of Allied forces in the South West Pacific area. Defended Australia, recaptured Borneo, the Philippines, and New Guinea. Oversaw occupation of japan (1945-1951).
Who was Dwight D. Eisenhower?
Served as SUpreme Commander of Allied forces in Europe, as General of the Army.
Why did Truman decide to drop the atomic bomb on Japan?
Because it was calculated that the mortality rates of the Allied forces would be catastrophic, and this way at least not as many would die (on our side).
Why did FDR agree to the Japanese Internment Camps?
To please his peers, and thorugh United tates Executive Order 9066, he ordered all japanese and americans of japanese descent report to camps that would be overseen by military authorities.
WHat was the Truman Doctrine?
United States foreign policy announced by Harry S. Truman, March 12, 1947, that supported Greece and Turkey with military and economic aid. Just to prevent them from falling into Soviet influence.
What was the Marshall Plan?
Primary plan of U.S. for rebuilding Europe and repelling communism. Named after Secretary of State George Marshall. It loaned money to all particpators, and helped stabilize the econmoy in Europe once again.
What was the Iron Curtain?
Western term made famous by Winston CHurchill that described the imaginary boundary that divided Europe into two seperate areas from the end of WWII to the end of the COld War. East was held under Soviet influence, West, under Western influence.
What was the Warsaw Pact?
Organization of central and eastern european communist states. Created to counter the threats of the establishment of the NATO alliance. Started the re-militarization of Germany.
Who was the leader of the COmmunist Chinese government, starting in 1949?
Chairman Mao Zedong.
What ended the fighting in Korea in 1953?
The signing of an armistice in July 27, 1953. It called for a cease-fire.
What happened to Korea after the armistice was signed?
The whole ordeal of conflict in in Korea was forgotten as we got into conflicts with Vietnam.
Who was Joseph McCarthy?
Republican Senator from WI, perpetuated the RED SCARE in AMerica by way of his unfounded witch hunts after communist spies in AMerica. His reign over the minds of Americans ended when he was humiliated on national television during the Army-McCarthy Hearings, when he could not produce evidence backing his accusations.
Who was John Foster Dulles?
AMerican statesman who served under Eisenhower as his Secretary of State.Significant figure during the Cold War era, he advocated a staunch position against Communism. Famously refused to shake hands with Zhou Enlai (Premier of People's Republic of China) during the Genevea COnference.
Who was Alger Hiss?
U.S. State Department Official who was accused by Whittaker CHambers of being a Communist. Was convicted of perjury in 1950 after two trials.
Who were the Dixiecrats? And who had they nominated for the election of 1948?
Southern Democrats, supported segregation, and wanted to keep the Jim Crow laws in place too.

They had nominated Strom Thurman as their candidate for the 1948 election.
John F. Kennedy was a Senator from what state?
During JFK's presidency, what position did his brother Robert have?
Attorney General.
Whose idea was the Peace Corps, and was it succesful?
It was JFK's idea, it was very successful.
What was the Warren Commission?
Established by LBJ in order to investigate JFK's slaying. Found Lee harvey Oswald as the culprit under the Lone Gunman Theory.
How was the Cuban Missile Crisis resolved?
Soviet Union said that if U.s. promised to never again attack Cuba like in the Bay of Pigs assault, and also to remove the nuclear missiles in Turkey that were aimed at the Soviet. U.S. hastily agreed and Robert Kennedy was sent to delegate.
Why was the Berlin Wall created?
To seperate East (Soviet controlled) Berlin from West (France, England, American controlled).
How did the U.S. initially respond to the space race against the Soviet Union?
Americans were at first scared, because with the launching of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik, there was now an imagined possibility of the Soviet attacking from outer space. Instead of just on planet Earth.
Explain LBJ's Great Society.
Set of proposed domestic programs from LBJ.
2 goals of Great Society?
1) Elimination of poverty
2) Elimination of racial injustice.
What was Plessy vs. Ferguson?
Must have seperate but equal public utilities.
What was Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka?
Totally dismissed seperate but equal creed.
Civil Rights of 1964
Outlawed discrimination, this time including women. Reinforced right to vote, and other such basic liberties.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Prohibited discrimination in sale, rental, and financing of housing based on any discrimantory factor.
What happened with the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
This particular act, outlawed pre-voting literacy tests.
What was the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
It all started with when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus. SHe was arrested, and thus outraging the African American community, with intervention from MLK jr. He organized a citywide boycott of all public transit by all blacks in montgomery, this led to deep drops in income for the public transi authority, who gave in to the boycott.
Who were the Black Panthers?
Black Power militant group founded by Huey Newton, Bobby Seale, and Richard Aoki. Patrolled the streets for black injustices, always ready to fight back with violence. Refused to cooperate with whites.
What was the main goal of the U.S. in Vietnam?
To control Communist orbs of influence from leaking to other parts of the world. But with casualties rising at an alarming rate, it changed into getting American troops out of there.
When did TET OFFENSIVE happen?
Jan uary 30, 1968.
Cambodia Campaign, when?
Spring, 1970.
MLK's Assassination, when?
April 4, 1968.
Robert Kennedy's assassination, when?
June 5, 1968.
What country did U.S. try to help while trying to reclaim Vietnam?
Tom Hayden and Al Haber formed what?
The Students for a Democratic Society organization. Tom Hayden drafted their Port Huron statement, and it was a student activist radicalism group.
What event in Vietnam convinced AMericans that they were not going to win the war?
The TET offensive.
Which president asked for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution?
What is the DOmino THeory?
Pick off the leader, and the rest will follow.
Who's Cesar Chavez?
American farm worker, labor leader, and activist who founded the NFWA.
who did chavez try to help?
Minority farm laborers, most notably in the Delano Grape Strike, calling for higher wages.
The feminist movement became more prevalent after what other movement?
The Civil Rights movement.
Who made up the counterculture movement?
The Hippies.
Who did the conservatives blame for the permissiveness of society?
The government.
Who wrote the Feminine Mystique?
Betty Friedan.
What women's group was created after the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
The National Organization of Women (NOW).
WHich party helped Reagan win the election?
The Republican party.
What does staglflation mean?
A period of high inflation paired with economic recession.
Who became president after Nixon resigned?
Gerald Ford.
Which two countries were the Camp David accords between?
Egypt and Israel.
What organization was created by the federal government to help fix the pollution problem?
The Evironmental Protection Agency.
What was Watergate?
The series of events that spanned the dark side of Nixon's presidency, during which he sorely abused his executive powers.
Why was Ford's "Whip Inflation Now" (WIN) unsuccessful?
Because people were skeptical of Ford's program to fight inflation, wearing their WIN buttons upside down as NIM; No Immediate Miracles.