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26 Cards in this Set

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How was papyrus made?
How was papyrus made?
Steps:
1. Cut the inner part of papyrus reeds into strips.
2. Soak the strips in water until soft
3. Lay strips in a criss-cross pattern between cloth
4. Press cloth and strips to push water out of papyrus.
5. Press the strips again to form the paper.
How were government officials chosen?
1. You were related to the pharaoh or someone upper-class
2. You inherited your job from another family member.
3. You were a trusted servant from the royal court.
How were women treated in ancient Egypt?  What rights did they have?
How were women treated in ancient Egypt? What rights did they have?
Women had more rights than usual. They could:
1. Own land and businesses
2. Ask for divorces
3. Represent themselves in legal matters
4. Work as doctors, government officials or priestesses
List the classes in the social pyramid from highest to lowest.
List the classes in the social pyramid from highest to lowest.
Pharaoh, government officials, priests, scribes, artisans, peasants
Only priests that were purified were allowed to enter a sanctuary. What did a priest have to do to be purified?
1. Avoid lower-class foods like fish.
2. Bath 3-4 times a day in holy pools.
3. Shave off all his body hair.
4. Wear only linen cloth (animal cloths like leather and wool were considered unclean).
Peasant life revolved around the Nile's three seasons. What were these seasons?
The flooding season (June-September)
The planting season (October)
The harvest season (March)
True or False? Artisans were highly respected for the things they made.
False. Most upper classes saw artisans as common laborers. They were rarely allowed to sign their own work. During hard times, they often went hungry.
True or False? Because peasants grew the food, they usually had plenty to eat.
False. Peasants ate onions, cucumbers, fish, bread and beer, but rarely ate peas or lentils. They rarely ate meat other than fish. If the harvest was poor, they were brutally beaten.
True or False? Only men could be priests.
False. Women could be priestesses and were considered equal to male priests.
True or False?  Even men wore perfume in ancient Egypt.
True or False? Even men wore perfume in ancient Egypt.
True.
What age did most Egyptian boys start studying to become scribes?
5 years old.
What did peasants do during the flooding season?
1. Work on monuments and pyramids
2. Participate in holidays and festivals
3. Play a river game where you knock other players off papyrus rafts.
What did peasants do during harvest season?
1. Men cut down plants with sickles
2. Women and children gather the stalks of grain
3. Everyone worked from dawn to dusk.
What did peasants do during planting season?
1. Plow the field
2. Scatter seeds (usually barley and wheat)
3. Irrigate the land as crops grow
What kinds of things did scribes do?
What kinds of things did scribes do?
1. Record amount of grain and food supply
2. Record how many people lived in the area (census)
3. Calculated and recorded taxes
4. Recorded court cases and laws
5. Kept track of the army and its supplies.
What social class does this describe?
1. Usually enjoyed banquets
2. The Vizier (a member of this class) advised the pharaoh
3. Wore fine linen clothing
Government officials
What were some of the duties of priests and priestesses?
What were some of the duties of priests and priestesses?
1. Overseeing religious ceremonies
2. Care for the temples
3. Give advice and healing to the people
4. Embalm and mummify the dead.
Which artisans were considered the most skiled? What did they use their skills for?
Stone carvers were the most skilled. They carved inscriptions on walls, added artwork and statues to tombs, and made stone coffins.
What social class does this describe?
1. Lived in simple houses of mud and brick.
2. Helped build pyramids when they weren't busy.
3. Took holidays when the Nile flooded.
Peasants
Which social class does this describe?
1. Specialized in a craft.
2. Lived in a modest, 3-room home.
3. Went hungry when work was low.
4. Worked for 10 days before taking time off.
Artisans
Who were the three most important government officials and what did they do?
1. Vizier- advised the pharaoh and carried out his commands, appointed and supervised other government officials, chief judge

2. Chief treasurer- collected taxes, looked after the government's wealth

3. General of the armies- top military commander, advised the pharaoh about war, helped the pharaoh make alliances
Why did ancient Egyptian teachers believe a youngster's ear is on his back"?
Why did ancient Egyptian teachers believe a youngster's ear is on his back"?
They believed students wouldn't listen to you unless you beat them.
Why did ancient Egyptians believe a rigid social structure was a good idea?
They believed their class system created a stable, ordered society where everyone knew what their role was.
What was one way you could change your social level (if you were a man)?
Become a scribe.
Why did so few people become scribes?
1. It took a long time. You had to study for 12 years to learn 700 hieroglyphs

2. School was hard! Classes lasted from sunrise to sunset. Teachers were strict and would yell at you or beat you.
Why do we use pyramids to represent social structures?
1. Higher levels in the pyramid have more power.
2. Higher levels also have less people.