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30 Cards in this Set

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genetics definition

science of biological heredity and variation

Darwin

-1858


-age 22 HMS Beagle to South America and Africa


-theory of natural selection: survival of the fittest: organisms better adapted to the envmt are more likely to survive, mate, and pass on traits


-also Alfred Russel Wallace also credited independently


-On the Origin of Species

Mendel

-1866


-Austrian monk


-first plant breeder


-"father of modern genetics"


-Dr. Kenworthy's personal hero


-published work on inheritance of traits in pea plants (work ignored until 1900s when rediscovered)


-developed "principles of inheritance" for transmission of traits in pea plants


-identified differences in traits: inheritance "factors" (traits)


-suggested each cell contained a set of paired factors and that each pair determined a specific trait (first concept of a gene and that diff versions of a gene exist)


-during sex-cell formation each factor pair segregates so resulting gametes each get one, segregation was independent of the segregation of other factor pairs (if on different chromosomes) - i.e. one trait for one trait is inherited independently of another gene - didn't account for genes on same chromosome being inherited together

genetic manipulation

-has been occurring for >10,000 years


-pic of monk pollinating in 800 BC - people learned to save plants with more seeds instead of eating them all


-man-induced/directed selection for traits related to yield/stress resistance/etc has made all crop plants different from their native ancestors


1. wheat: modern wheat developed through hybridization of 3 species


2. sunflower: cultivated (one flower) vs common weed (multiple flowers)


3. corn/maize vs teosinte: teosinte = progenitor species

Miescher

-1869


-Swiss


-discovered a weak acid abundant in nuclei of white cells - deoxyribonucleic acid


-didn't know function, just discovered



Correns, de Vries & von Tschermak

-independently re-discovered Mendel's principles of inheritance


-beginning of modern genetics (Mendelian Genetics)

cytogenetics

-1902-1910


-related to study of chromosomes (behavior and function) skyrocketed in early 1900s


-cytogenetics: heredity at the cellular level is based on chromosomes


-Boveri (German), Janssens (French), Sutton & Morgan (Americans)

Bateson

-1906


-Englishman


-suggested term "genetics" for discipline concerned with heredity and its associated variation

Johannsen

-1909 Danish botanist


-suggested term "gene" replace Mendel's "factor"

Morgan

-1910


-cytologist


-United States


-sex-linked traits in Drosophila: eye color was first trait linked to a specific chromosome

man-induced mutations

-1927


-Muller induced mutations in fruit fly with X rays


-Stadler induced mutations in plants with X rays

Griffith

-1928 - still hadn't determined what substance is responsible for heredity of traits - discovered DNA/RNA/proteins but don't know which


-showed that genetic info in bacteria could be transformed

Griffith experiment (1)

-bacterial pneumonia in mammals is caused by strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae:
1) R-strain (rough strain): colonies have rough surface and are not pathogenic
2) S-strain (smooth strain): colonies have smooth surface and are pathogenic


-...

-bacterial pneumonia in mammals is caused by strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae:


1) R-strain (rough strain): colonies have rough surface and are not pathogenic


2) S-strain (smooth strain): colonies have smooth surface and are pathogenic


-heat-killed S cells mixed with live R cells ended up with live S cells even though didn't inject in


-live R strain didn't replicate b/c nonvirulent


-conclusion: dead S cells can make living R cells pathogenic (i.e. R cells are genetically transformed into S cells)


-left question as to what substance is the transforming material - DNA, RNA, or protein?

Avery, MacLeod & McCarty

-1944 (16 years after Griffith experiment)


-showed that genetic info in bacteria could be transformed by purified DNA


--> first evidence that DNA is the genetic material


-showed DNA was responsible for transformation of R cells into S cells in Griffith's work with mice - took his experiment a step further

transformation definition

-genetic alteration of a cell through incorporation of foreign DNA

Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment (2)

-first two: if were caused by RNA or protein, transformation wouldn't have taken place
-far right: no S cells; no transformation occurred
-first evidence that DNA is responsible for inheritance
-didn't eliminate possibility that small amount of a...

-first two: if were caused by RNA or protein, transformation wouldn't have taken place


-far right: no S cells; no transformation occurred


-first evidence that DNA is responsible for inheritance


-didn't eliminate possibility that small amount of active protein might be present in the transforming DNA - active protein could interact with mice immune systems to cause disease

Chase & Hershey

-1952


-final proof that DNA is molecule responsible for heredity of traits


-used bacteriophages labeled with radioisotopes


-bacteriophage: a virus that infects bacteria


-virus: submicroscopic obligate parasite consisting of nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) and a protein

Chase & Hershey experiment (3)

-went through reproductive cycle in cell and looked to see if 32P or 35S in progeny


-phage DNA labeled with 32P
-phage protein labeled with 35S
-infect E coli cells with labeled T2 phage
-centrifuge and remove unattached phage particles
-blen...

-went through reproductive cycle in cell and looked to see if 32P or 35S in progeny


-phage DNA labeled with 32P


-phage protein labeled with 35S


-infect E coli cells with labeled T2 phage


-centrifuge and remove unattached phage particles


-blend and shear attached phage particles from bacterial cell surfaces


allow progeny phage to form and lyse cell


-analyze progeny for labeled DNA/protein


-results: progeny phage contained 32P labeled DNA, not 35S labeled protein


-final evidence for DNA as responsible for inheritance

Watson & Crick

-1953


-race to learn DNA's structure so could start to manipulate


-determined three-dimensional structure of DNA: double-helix


-won Nobel Prize in 1962


-Rosalind Franklin & Maurice Wilkins provided pic of DNA through X ray diffraction, thought saw 3 rungs but Watson & Crick saw 2 (double helix)


-??? need to know how X ray diffraction works ???


-discovery of DNA as hereditary material and its structure marked the beginning of the understanding of gene function at the molecular level - molecular genetics

Rosalind Franklin & 1962 Nobel Prize

-died in 1958 and only living persons can be nominated for Nobel Prize


-in 2008 archive opened and it was discovered she was never nominated

Kornberg

-1958


-purified DNA polymerase I (enzyme that catalyzes the formation of DNA) from E coli


-polymerases: enzymes that catalyze the formation of DNA/RNA from deoxynucleotides and ribonucleotides, respectively

Nirenberg & Khorans

-1966


-labs cracked the genetic code (triplet mRNA codons specify each of 20 amino acids)

Smith & Wilcox

-1970


-isolated first restriction enzyme, HindIII


-restriction enzyme: enzyme that can cut DNA molecules at specific recognition sites

Berg & Boyer

-1973


-first recombinant DNA molecules: molecules containing DNA from two different organisms


-first GMO

Mullis

-1985


-developed PCR: sensitive assay for amplifying DNA (increasing copy number)

Human Genome Project

-began in 1990 with a 15 year plan


-determining entire sequence of human chromosomal DNA


-1999 complete sequence of chromosome 22 (the smallest)


-2000 first working draft


-finished in 2003 (2 years ahead of time)


-20,000-25,000 protein coding genes

Dolly

-1997


-first cloned sheep born (no sexual process involved in birth)


-1963-2009: Asian carp, cows and goats, rhesus monkey/Mouflon/pigs/mice, Gaur/cat/human embryos/rabbit, rat, white tail deer/horses/mules, ferrets, gray wolves/dogs, buffalo


-prob more since

Arabidopsis thaliana

-2000


-genome completed


-model organism for plant molecular biology/genetics


-26,000 genes, functions determined by 2010

tropical fish that fluoresces bright red

-2003


-first genetically modified pet to go on sale in U.S.

ENCODE

-Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)


-launched 2003


-looks at interpretation of genetic code to determine function behind certain elements of DNA and which are associated with disease


-2007 pilot phase complete


-2012 technical phase (ongoing)