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63 Cards in this Set

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"the study of the way history has been and is written — the history of historical writing... When you study 'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians.”
Captivity Narratives
genre of literature that really flourished in the 1700s. People who are taken into Indian society and refuse to go back to colonial society. mostly religious (occur in New England) examine in a terms of deliverance from evil. One of the earliest American Genres.
Ben Franklin
Not the typical colonist. Considered the 'first american' rags to riches. Considered the last American because he valued Britishness to last detail. Worked on compromise to avoid the uprising.
Atlantic World
(back and forth trade of animals and goods, ideas, disease, broader term than triangle trade)
Pontiacs Rebellion
Ohio country-western Pennsylvania, seen as refuge are for Indians. 13 british forts, 4 are left after FI war. They are getting taxed but not protected. only documented instance of "germ" warfare. sent Smallpox ridden blankets. were sent to an Indian village. within 2 years the tribes were gone.

An “Indian Great Awakening”
 Neolin, the “Delaware prophet,” speaks
of a pan-Indian identity
 Indians lose the fight, but push the line of settlement back
 Only 4 of 13 British frontier posts in the region survive the rebellion
 Infighting among Indians increases
Paxton Boys
1763 Pennsylvania and the Indians. The war deepened the hostility of western Pennsylvania farmers toward Indians and witnessed numerous indiscriminate assaults on Indian communities. the paxton boys demanded that Indians be removed from PA. Paxton boys slaughtered 20 innocent Indians.
end of 7 years war & french and indian war. Indians across colonies are feeling vulnerable in a new way. No French authority in North America. Indians no longer can choose sides.
Richard Hakluyt’s
Flourishing promotional literature
“Discourse Concerning Western Planting”
• soil ...may be made to yield ...commodities
• [prevent] the Spanish King from flowing over all [of] America
• enlarge the glory of the gospel
• treasure of the mines of gold and silver
• saving [people who] may otherwise be devoured by the gallows
• soldiers and servitors... that might be hurtful to this realm, may there be unladen
•wandering beggars of England, that grow up idly, and hurtful and burdensome to this realm, may there be unladen, better bred up
American Exceptionalism
“city on a hill”
• “All men are created equal”
• “manifest destiny”
• “last best hope of mankind”
• “rags to riches”
• “arsenal of democracy”
• People—land of opportunity
• Land—significance of the frontier
• Ideas and institutions—land of liberty
Virginia Company
1606 first charter calls for seven- man council, specifies mission and type of settlement to be established
Gold & silver
Challenge Spanish
Exploit resources like timber
Set up industry, e.g. glassmaking, iron, silk, and wine
1609 second charter called for expansion of settlement as well as
sole governor with group of appointed advisors
1612 third charter allows company to raise money by lottery
Jamestown Established
1606 James I grants charter to Virginia Company
1607 105 men and boys land at Cape Henry
Open box holding names of 7-man council
John Smith captured by Powhatans
1608 Christopher Newport returns with supplies, finds only 38 settlers remaining
Smith elected head of Council; requires settlers to work if they want to eat
First two women arrive with resupply ship

New policies adopted in 1618 helped colony survive:
headright system
a charter of grants and liberties slavery; the first slaves arrived in 1619
John Rolfe
1610 John Rolfe begins experimenting with sweeter strain of tobacco acquired in West Indies.

1614 Rolfe sends first shipment of tobacco to England, marries Pocahontas.
1622 Uprising
Once the English decided on a permanent colony instead of merely a trading post, conflict was inevitable
Opechancanough led an attack on Virginia’s settlers in 1622—about 340 settlers were killed, 1⁄4 of colony
The English forced the Indians to recognize their subordination to the government at Jamestown and moved them onto reservations
The Virginia Company surrendered its charter to the crown in 1624
Expanding settlement triggered another uprising in 1644, with about 500 English settlers killed
Headright System
South Carolina:
Item, To the Owner of every Negro-Man or
Slave, brought thither to settle within the first year, twenty acres- and for every Woman-Negro or Slave, ten acres of Land and all Men-Negro's, or Slaves after that time, and within the first five years, ten acres, and for every Woman-Negro or Slave, five acres.
The Rise of Puritanism
emerged from the Protestant Reformation in England
Believed Church of England retained too many elements of Catholicism
believers should seek the truth by reading the Bible and listening to sermons
followed the teachings of John Calvin
hopes of establishing a Bible Commonwealth that would eventually influence England
Puritans were governed by a “moral liberty”

Puritans reproduced the family structure of England with men at the head of the household
Women were allowed full church membership and divorce was legal, but a woman was expected to obey her husband fully
Puritans believed that a woman achieved genuine freedom by fulfilling her prescribed social role and embracing subjection to her husband’s authority

Puritan Liberties
Puritans defined liberties by social rank, producing a rigid hierarchical society justified by God’s will
The Body of Liberties affirmed the rights of free speech and assembly and equal protection for all
Mayflower Compact
Pilgrims sailed in 1620 to Cape Cod aboard the
The Great Migration
The Massachusetts Bay Company was charted in 1629 by London merchants wanting to further the Puritan cause and to turn a profit from trade with the Indians
New England settlement was very different compared to the Chesapeake colonies
New England had a more equal balance of men and women
New England enjoyed a longer life expectancy New England had more families
New England enjoyed a healthier climate
Roger Williams
New England Divided:
• preached that any citizen ought to be free to practice whatever form of religion he chose
• believed that it was essential to separate church and state
• Williams was banished from Massachusetts in 1636 and he established
Rhode Island
• Rhode Island was truly a beacon of religious freedom and democratic government
• Other former members of Massachusetts included New Haven and Hartford, which joined to become the colony of Connecticut in 1662
Anne Hutchinson
New England Divided:
a well-educated, articulate woman who charged that nearly all the ministers in Massachusetts were guilt of faulty preaching
placed on trial in 1637 for sedition
On trial she spoke of divine revelations
She and her followers were banished
As seen with Williams and Hutchinson, Puritan New England was a
place of religious persecution
Quakers were hanged in Massachusetts Religious tolerance violated “moral liberty”
Half-Way Covenant
New England Divided:
By 1650, the church had to deal with the third generation of the Great Migration
In 1662, the Half-Way Covenant was a compromise for the grandchildren of the Great Migration, granting half-way membership into the church
Mourning Wars
common raiding practice used to replace lost members of a community or ease the grief of kin. Captives might be:
tortured and killed to take their spiritual power ritually adopted
Important point is that people were at a premium— purpose of war was not spoils or territory
Pequot War 1636-7
• triggered by killing of popular trader John Stone in 1633
• Retaliatory strike for earlier killing of Pequot leader (by the Dutch) and/or Stone’s mistreatment of Indians
• Puritan officials demanded justice
• Pequots believed killing justified, and thought
delivery of wampum settled the matter
• Back-and-forth violence culminated in attempt to completely eradicate Pequots
King Phillips War 1675
Metacom, also known as “King Philip”
• A man more neighbor than enemy to the English
• Accused of murdering former aide
• In 1674, about 2,300 Indians living in “praying towns”
• Numbers had increased because of belief that spiritual power there would help protect them against epidemics
King Philip and his forces attacked nearly forty-five New England towns
• settlers counterattack in 1676, breaking the Indians’ power once and for all
• Consequences: abandonment of most settlements in western Massachusetts and northwestern Connecticut
Middle Ground
Diverse Peoples adjust their differences throught what amounts to a process of creative, and often expediant, misunderstandings. People try to persuade others who are different from themselves by appealing to what they percieve to be the values and the practices of those others. They often misinterpret and distort both the values and practices of those they deal with, but from these misunderstandings arise new meanings and through them new practices- Richard White
Bacon's Rebellion 1676
Virginia’s government ran a corrupt regime Good, free land was scarce for freed servants Taxes on tobacco rose as price fell
Frontier settlers demanded:
That governor remove colony’s Indians reduction of taxes
end of rule by the elite
Bacon spoke of traditional English liberties
Aftermath left Virginia’s planter-elite to consolidate their power and improve their image
William Penn
The Holy Experiment
Pennsylvania was the last seventeenth-century colony to be established and was given to proprietor William Penn
A Quaker, Penn envisioned a colony of peaceful harmony between colonists and Indians and a haven for spiritual freedom
Flushing Remonstrance
New Netherland
“We desire therefore in this case not to judge lest we be judged, neither to condemn lest we be condemned, but rather let every man stand or fall to his own Master. We are bound by the law to do good unto all men, especially to those of the household of faith. ...the powers of this world can neither attach us, nor excuse us....Our desire is not to offend one of [God’s] little ones...whether Presbyterian, Independent, Baptist or Quaker, but [we] shall be glad to see anything of God in any of them, desiring to do unto all men as we desire all men should do unto us, which is the true law both of Church and State; for our Savior sayeth this is the law and the prophets.”
Middle Passage
Part of the Ship where slaves were stored.
Society With Slaves
Slavery in the North.
Since the economics of New England and the Middle Colonies were based on small farms, slavery was far less important
 Given that slaves were few and posed little threat to the white majority, laws were less harsh than in the South
 Slaves did represent a sizable percentage of urban laborers, particularly in New York and Philadelphia
A Slave Society
Virginia and the South.
A number of factors made slave labor very attractive to English settlers by the end of the seventeenth century, and slavery began to supplant indentured servitude between 1680 and 1700
By the early eighteenth century, Virginia had transformed from a society with slaves to a slave society
In 1705, the House of Burgesses enacted strict slave codes
England attempted to regulate its
economy to ensure wealth and national
Commerce was the foundation of empire, not territorial plunder
The Navigation Acts required colonial products to be transported in English ships and sold at English ports
Triangle Trade
British manufactured goods were sent to Africa and the colonies
 Colonial products were sent to Europe
 Slaves from Africa were sent to the New
 Since trade centered upon slavery in some form, free colonists believed that freedom meant in part the power and right to enslave others
French and Indian War
1753: Washington’s diplomatic mission
1754: Killing of Jumonville
Washington’s defeat at Fort Necessity
1755: British 3-pronged attack on New France 1756: Conflict expands as Seven Years’ War 1757: Capture, massacre at Fort William Henry 1759: Plains of Abraham
1760: British capture Montreal 1763: Peace of Paris
Maryland Toleration Act
also known as the Act Concerning Religion, was a law mandating religious tolerance for trinitarian Christians. Passed on April 21, 1649 by the assembly of the Maryland colony, it was the second law requiring religious tolerance in the British North American colonies and created the first legal limitations on hate speech in the world. (The colony which became Rhode Island passed a series of laws, the first in 1636, which prohibited religious persecution including against non-Trinitarians
Albany Plan of Union
was proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress in 1754 in Albany, New York. It was an early attempt at forming a union of the colonies "under one government as far as might be necessary for defense and other general important purposes"[1] during the French and Indian War. Franklin's plan of union was one of several put forth by various delegates of the Albany Congress.
Bartolome de las casas
the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians." His extensive writings, the most famous A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies and Historia de Las Indias, chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies and focus particularly on the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the Indigenous peoples.

Arriving as one of the first settlers in the New World he participated in, and was eventually compelled to oppose, the atrocities committed against the Native Americans by the Spanish colonists. In 1515 he reformed his views, giving up his Indian slaves and encomienda,
Black Legend
Native Americans are portrayed to the Englanders as murderous savages.
is the area of an ancient indigenous city (c. 600–1400 CE) located in the American Bottom floodplain, between East Saint Louis and Collinsville in south-western Illinois, across the Mississippi River from St. Louis, Missouri. The 2,200-acre (890 ha) site included 120 human-built earthwork mounds over an area of six square miles, of which 80 remain.[2] Cahokia Mounds is the largest archaeological site related to the Mississippian culture, which developed advanced societies in central and eastern North America, beginning more than five centuries before the arrival of Europeans.[3]
Christopher Newport
was an English seaman and privateer. He is best known as the captain of the Susan Constant, the largest of three ships which carried settlers for the Virginia Company in 1607 on the way to find the settlement at Jamestown in the Virginia Colony, which became the first permanent English settlement in North America. He was also in overall command of the other two ships on that initial voyage, in order of their size, the Godspeed and the Discovery.

He made several voyages of supply between England and Jamestown; in 1609, he became Captain of the Virginia Company's new supply ship, Sea Venture, which met a hurricane during the Third Supply mission, and was shipwrecked on an unnamed archipelago which became known as Bermuda.
City Upon A Hill
The phrase entered the American lexicon early in its history, in the Puritan John Winthrop's 1630 sermon "A Model of Christian Charity". Still aboard the ship Arbella, Winthrop admonished the future Massachusetts Bay colonists that their new community would be a "city upon a hill", watched by the world---which became the ideal the New England colonists placed upon their hilly capital city, Boston.[1] Winthrop's sermon gave rise to the widespread belief in American folklore that the United States of America is God's country because metaphorically it is a Shining City upon a Hill, an early example of American exceptionalism.
Columbian Exchange
was a dramatically widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, human populations (including slaves), communicable disease, and ideas between the Eastern and Western hemispheres (Old World and New World). It was one of the most significant events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in all of human history. Christopher Columbus' first voyage to the Americas in 1492 launched the era of large-scale contact between the Old and the New Worlds that resulted in this ecological revolution, hence the name "Columbian" Exchange.
Covenant Chain
was a series of alliances and treaties involving the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee), the British colonies of North America, and a number of other Indian tribes. Their councils and subsequent treaties concerned colonial settlement, trade, and acts of violence between the colonists and Indian tribes from the Colony of Virginia to New England.
a religious philosophy which holds that reason and observation of the natural world, without the need for organized religion, can determine that the universe is the product of an all-powerful creator. According to deists, the creator rarely, if ever, either intervenes in human affairs or suspends the natural laws of the universe. Deists typically reject supernatural events such as prophecy and miracles, tending instead to assert that a god (or "the Supreme Architect") does not alter the universe by intervening in it.
Politically, the age is distinguished by an emphasis upon liberty, democracy, republicanism and religious tolerance – culminating in the drafting of the United States Declaration of Independence and Constitution. Attempts to reconcile science and religion resulted in a rejection of prophecy, miracle and revealed religion, often in preference for Deism. Historians have considered how the ideas of John Locke and republicanism merged together to form republicanism in the United States. The most important leaders of the American Enlightenment include Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.
Great Awakening
s used to refer to a period of religious revival in American religious history. Historians and theologians identify three or four waves of increased religious enthusiasm occurring between the early 18th century and the late 19th century. Each of these "Great Awakenings" was characterized by widespread revivals led by evangelical Protestant ministers, a sharp increase of interest in religion, a profound sense of conviction and redemption on the part of those affected, a jump in evangelical church membership, and the formation of new religious movements and denominations.
Henry Hudson
In 1610, Hudson managed to get backing for another voyage, this time under the English flag. The funding came from the Virginia Company and the British East India Company. At the helm of his new ship, the Discovery, he stayed to the north (some claim he deliberately stayed too far south on his Dutch-funded voyage), reaching Iceland on May 11, the south of Greenland on June 4, and then rounding the southern tip of Greenland.
John Winthrop
was a wealthy English Puritan lawyer, and one of the leading figures in the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the first major settlement in New England after Plymouth Colony. Winthrop led the first large wave of migrants from England in 1630, and served as governor for 12 of the colony's first 20 years of existence. His writings and vision of the colony as a Puritan "city upon a hill" dominated New England colonial development, influencing the government and religion of neighboring colonies.
John Edwards
was a preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. Edwards "is widely acknowledged to be America's most important and original philosophical theologian,"[3] and one of America's greatest theologians.[4] Edwards's theological work is very broad in scope, but he is often associated with his defense of Reformed theology (Calvinism), the metaphysics of theological determinism, and the Puritan heritage. Recent studies have emphasized how thoroughly Edwards grounded his life's work on conceptions of beauty, harmony, and ethical fittingness, and how central The Enlightenment was to his mindset.[5].
Jumonville Glen
was the opening battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 near what is present-day Uniontown in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. A company of colonial militia from Virginia under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Washington, and a small number of Mingo warriors led by Tanacharison (also known as "Half King"), ambushed a force of 35 Canadiens under the command of Joseph Coulon de Villiers de Jumonville.
was a prophet of the Lenni Lenape, who was derided by the British as "The Imposter."[cite this quote] Beginning in 1762, Neolin believed that the native people needed to reject European goods and abandon dependency on foreign settlers in order to return to a more traditional lifestyle.[1] He made arguments against alcohol, materialism, and polygamy. Neolin emphasized that the favor of God in blessing the Indians with game to hunt would be spoiled if they did not forsake their evil collusion with the alien white men. Neolin's most famous follower was Pontiac.
Ohio Company
was a land speculation company organized for the settlement by Virginians of the Ohio Country (approximately the present state of Ohio) and to trade with the Indians there. The Company had a land grant from Britain and a treaty with Indians, but France also claimed the area, and the conflict helped provoke the outbreak of the French and Indian War. No lands were actually settled, and the company ended operations by 1776.
Peter Stuyvesant
served as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City. Stuyvesant's accomplishments as director-general included a great expansion for the settlement of New Amsterdam beyond the southern tip of Manhattan. Among the projects built by Stuyvesant's administration were the protective wall on Wall Street, the canal that became Broad Street, and Broadway.
is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
is the name of a Virginia Indian confederation of tribes.[1] It is estimated that there were about 14,000–21,000 of these native Powhatan people in eastern Virginia when the English settled Jamestown in 1607.[2] They were also known as Virginia Algonquians, as they spoke an eastern-Algonquian language known as Powhatan or Virginia Algonquin.
Proclamation of 1763
by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War. The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. The Royal Proclamation continues to be of legal importance to First Nations in Canada and is significant for the variation of indigenous status in the United States.[1]
Proprietary Colony
was a colony in which one or more individuals, usually land owners, remaining subject to their parent state's sanctions, retained rights that are today regarded as the privilege of the state, and in all cases eventually became so.[1]
Most were run under a colonial charter agreement, which was reviewed by the ruling Monarch. A good example is the Province of Pennsylvania, granted to William Penn (the state still bears the name meaning "woodlands of Penn") by King Charles II of England.
This type of indirect rule eventually fell out of favor as the colonies became established and administrative difficulties eased. The English Sovereigns sought to concentrate their power and authority and the colonies were converted to crown colonies, i.e. governed by officials appointed by the King replacing the people the King had previously appointed and under different terms.
Three Sisters
are the three main agricultural crops of various Native American groups in North America: squash, maize, and climbing beans (typically tepary beans or common beans).
Seigneurial System
was introduced to New France in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu. Under this system, the lands were arranged in long narrow strips, called seigneuries, along the banks of the St. Lawrence River. Each piece of land belonged to the king of France and was maintained by the landlord, or seigneur.
Starving Time
at Jamestown in the Colony of Virginia was a period of forced starvation initiated by the Powhatan Confederacy to remove the English from Virginia. The campaign killed all but 60 of the 500 colonists during the winter of 1609–1610.
Stono Rebellion
was a slave rebellion that commenced on 9 September 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. It was the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies prior to the American Revolution
Treaty of Tordesillas
June 1494, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Spain and Portugal along a meridian 370 leagues[note 1] west of the Cape Verde islands (off the west coast of Africa). This line of demarcation was about halfway between the Cape Verde Islands (already Portuguese) and the islands discovered by Christopher Columbus on his first voyage (claimed for Spain)
Treaty of Utrecht
comprises a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713. The treaties between several European states, including Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic, helped end the war.
Walking Purchase
was a purported 1737 agreement between the Penn family, the proprietors of Pennsylvania, and the Lenape (also known as the Delaware). By it the Penn family and proprietors claimed an area of 1,200,000 acres (4,860 km²) and forced the Lenape to vacate it. The Lenape appeal to the Iroquois for aid on the issue was refused.
William Penn's heirs, John Penn and Thomas Penn, claimed a deed from the 1680s by which the Lenape promised to sell a tract beginning at the junction of the Delaware River and Lehigh River (near modern Wrightstown) and extending as far west as a man could walk in a day and a half.