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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the circulatory system?
composed of blood and lymphatic vascular systems
What are the parts of the "blood system" in the circulatory system?
1. Heart
2. Arteries
3. Veins
4. Capillaries
What is the lymphatic system?
Begins in lymphatic capillaries and ends in blood vascular system, emptying in the large veins near heart
The internal surface of the circulatory system components are covered by what?
1) What do they do?
2) Why are their walls so thick?
1) carry O2 rich blood from heart to organs
2) to protect against damage from pressure
Further from the heart, arteries become what?
T/F. Capillaries only connect to arteries.
False; capillaries connect to arteries and veins.
1) What do they do?
2) Walls?
1) They carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart
2) Thinner walls than arteries
Describe capillaries.
1) They have a single layer of endothelial cells
2) Surrounded by thin sheath of reticular and collagenous fibers and some pericytes (mesenchymal-like stem cells)
What happens to pericytes in wound healing?
They may differentiate into fibroblasts or smooth muscle cells
What are lymph capillaries?
-Form a fine network
-Have many interconnections (anastomosis)
Describe lymphatic circulation.
1) Begins with blind ending (close at one end)
2) Lymph capillaries are highly permeable
3) Formed by endothelial cells with button-like junctions
4) Fluid passes through them when the interstitial pressure is high enough
Lymphatic system
1) function?
2) internal surfaces of all components lined by what?
1) to return the fluid of the tissue spaces to the blood
2) The internal surface of ALL components of blood and lymphatic systems is lined by a single layer of squamous epithelium (endothelium)
What are arteries?
Elastic vessels that transport blood away from the heart
What is the largest artery in the body?
Where does the largest artery in the body originate?
Originates from the heart and branches out into smaller arteries
What are the smallest arteries called? Where do they go?
1) Arterioles
2) Branch into capillaries
T/F. Veins are under higher pressure than arteries.
FALSE. Arteries are under higher pressure.
What are veins? Where do they receive blood from?
1) Elastic vessels that transport blood to the heart
2) They receive blood from the arteries via the arterioles and capillaries.
What are the smallest veins in the body called?
Where do venules carry blood to?
1) Venules branch into larger veins
2) Larger veins carry to largest vein, the vena cava
3) vena cava--> Right Atrium of the heart
What transports O2 from the lungs to the rest of the body (i.e., muscles)? Why?
1) Hemoglobin
2) To release the oxygen for cell use in respiration
What is the most common type of fatal poisoning in most countries?
CO poisoning
What happens in CO poisoning?
1) 667 ppm of CO causes up to 50% of the body's hemoglobin --> carboxy-hemoglobin (HbCO)
2) Change is reversible
3) HbCO is rendered useless in delivering O2
4) This results in body parts not receiving O2 needed
Vascular Wall Components
1) What are the three components?
2) How are these components arranged?
1) Endothelium, muscular tissue, connective tissue (elastic)
2) Arrangement is determined by blood pressure (mechanical) and metabolic factors
1) Where is it?
2) What does it do?
3) Are they all the same?
1) Endothelium is between blood plasma and interstitial fluid
2) It restricts transports and acts as a semipermeable barrier.
3) Endothelial cells vary in function, depending on which vessel they are
Vascular smooth muscle
1) Where is the only place that vascular smooth muscle is not located?
2) What connects the muscle?
3) How is it organized?
4) What does it contain?
1) capillaries and postcapillary venules
2) gap junctions
3) Lie in helical layers in tunica media (very common)
4) Muscle cells are enclosed in a basal lamina and various CT
Where are smooth muscle cells located?
Tunica media of the vessel
Vascular CT
1) What type of fibers?
2) Why are elastic fibers necessary in the vessels?
3) What is the location and function of ground substance?
1) collagen and elastic fibers
2) they guarantee shrinkage after expansion of wall
3) In extracellular spaces and it affects the permeability across wall
1) Where do elastic fibers dominate?
2) What to do they allow?
1) Predominate the large arteries
2) Internal Elastic Lamina allows diffusion of substances
Where are collagen fibers found?
Between muscle cells and adventitia
What is a prominent feature vessels? What does this feature allow?
Internal elastic lamina (IEL); diffusion of substances
What is ground substance?
Heterogenous gel in the vessel wall
What are the three layers of blood vessel structure?
Layer (tunics = coats)
Tunica intima
tunica media
tunica adventitia
What separates tunica media from tunica intima?
Internal elastic lamina
Blood Vessel structure
1) Which tunica has only one layer?
2) Which tunica is the source of ECM?
3) Which two layers are separated by the internal elastic lamina in arteries?
4) Which tunica is continuous with CT of organ in which vessel runs?
1) tunica intima
2) Tunica media
3) tunica intima and tunica media
4) Tunica adventitia
Distinguish between three layers of a blood vessel.
1) Tunica intima: one layer of endothelial cells, has lamina
2) Tunica media: muscle cells in layers, source of ECM
3) tunica adventitia: contains collegen type I and elastic fibers; continuous with organ's CT
Vasa vasorum
1) Location?
2) What is it?
3) Function?
1) large vessels
2) arterioles, capillaries, and venules that branch in the adventitia and media
3) provide nourishment to adventitia and media
Why are vasa vasorum so important?
Because large vessels are too thick to get metabolites via diffusion from the blood in the lumen
1) What is the vast network of unmyelinated sympathetic nerves?
2) What does this network do?
3) What role do neurotransmitters play in the circulatory system?
1) Vasomotor nerves
2) supply most blood vessels that contain smooth muscle in their walls
3) Norepinephrine is released to cause vasoconstriction
Are arteries innervated?
How are nerve responses transmitted to inner layers of muscle cells in arteries?
Gap junctions, since nerves don't enter the media
Which has a greater amount of innervation, arteries or veins?
What is it called when arterial pressure is abnormally high? abnormally low?
Hypertension; hypotension
Blood pressure generally refers to _____ pressure.
Arterial pressure (i.e., the pressure in the larger arteries)
Blood pressure
1) What is it?
2) Why is blood pressure important?
3) What happens to the pressure of blood as it circulates through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and vens
1) the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels
2) It is one of the principal vital signs.
3) pressure decreases
Is arterial hypertension in itself an acute problem?
No, but because of its long-term indirect effects, it is a serious problem.
All levels of ________ pressure put mechanical stress on the _____ walls.
What does higher pressure do clinically to the body?
Increases heart workload and progression of unhealthy tissue growth that develops within the walls of arteries
What is an unhealthy tissue growth called?
What is one of the risk factors strokes, heart attacks, heart failure, arterial aneurysms, and chronic renal failture
Persistent hypertension
Even ________ leads to a shortened life expectancy!
moderate elevation of arterial pressure
Large elastic arteries
1) function?
2) Parts?
3) Characteristics
1) help stabilize blood flow
2) include aorta and its branches
3) tunica intima-thicker
tunica media-yellow
tunica adventitia-underdeveloped
What leads to a yellow color in tunica media in larger elastic arteries?
What type of artery has a thicker tunica intima than in muscular arteries?
Large elastic arteries
What types of artery has an underdeveloped tunica adventitia?
large elastic arteries
What contributes to the important function of making the blood flux more uniform?
several elastic laminae
What happens during ventricular contraction?
The elastic laminae of large arteries are stretched and reduce the pressure change
What happens during ventricular relaxation?
the pressure drops but the elastic arteries rebound to maintain pressure
What artery carries blood from heart to brain?
What are carotid bodies and what do they do?
Chemoreceptors (glomus cell, or group of cells); sense changes in CO2 and O2 concentrations in blood; most nerves are afferent fibers (carry info. to CNS)
What are enlarged areas of carotid arteries that contain baroreceptors?
What do sinsues detect?
Blood pressure changes, and relay to CNS
What is the function of medium (muscular) arteries?
To deliver blood to organs
Where are medium (muscular) arteries prominent?
Internal elastic lamina
What is unique about the tunica media in medium (muscular) arteries?
It contains up to 40 layers of SM cells
How does the intima of medium (muscular) arteries compare to elastic arteries?
It's thinner
What is another unique feature of medium (muscular) arteries?
Vasa vasorum found in adventitia (composed of CT)
Describe arterioles.
1) lumens
2) internal elastic lamina
3) media
4) adventitia
1) narrow lumens (less than 0.5mm in diameter)
2) IEL may or may not be present; consists of a network of fibers that may not be visible at the LM level
3) Media has 1-3 layers of smooth muscle cells with occasional elastic fibers
4) Adventitia is a layer of loose CT with longitudinally arranged collagenous and elastic fibers; VERY THIN
What is the smallest of the body's blood vessels?
What is the diameter of capillaries?
What are capillaries made of?
single layer of enothelia tube
What is the function of capillaries?
To connect arterioles and venules; enable interchange of water, oxygen, CO2, nutrient and waste chemicals between blood and tissue
Cells with long processes that surround the endothelial cells
What is the importance of pericytes?
contractile function
participate in repair process
Transcellular openings in the endothelial membrane of some capillaries
What is fenestrae's main function?
to provide a continuous channel from blood to tissue
What takes places at venules?
where deoxygenated blood returns from capillaries to veins to go back to the heart
What are 3 main types of capillaries?
Fenstrated (visceal)
Discontinuous (sinusoidal)
How are the 3 types of capillaries distinguished?
defined based on continuity between endothelial cells and basal lamina
Tissues with a rich capillary network, also have what feature? Give examples.
high rate of metabolism; kidney, liver, cardiac, and skeletal muscle
What two tissues have lesser developed capillary network
smooth muscle and CT
What accompanies muscular veins in sectioned tissue?
How can muscular veins be recognized?
Thinner walls and irregular, collapsed lumen
What is the order of vein types?
venules < small < medium < large veins
Near what part of the body are veins the largest
close to the heart; they have a well-developed adventitia
What are the three tunics of the heart?
Endocardium (internal): homologous with tunica intima of vessels
Myocardium (middle): thickest of tunics; consists of cardiac muscle cells
Pericardium (External): serous membrane in which heart lies
Which tunic of the heart is thickest?
What is the main function of the lymphatic vascular system?
return the extracellular liquid (lymph) to the bloodstream
How many directions and where does the lymphatic vascular system circulate?
one direction; toward the heart
How do lymphatic vessels differ from veins?
They have thinner walls and they lack a clear separation between layers (intima, media, and adventitia)
What is a unique feature of the lymphatic vascular system?
It contains numerous internal valves
What is atherosclerotic lesion?
thickening of the tunica intima proliferation of SM cells; increased CT; and lipoproteins
What are foam cells and how are they associated with athersclerotic lesions? How are they dangerous
Foam cells are macrophages which take up lipids. These form when monocytes are attracted to athero. lesions
-they form plaques; if these plaques extend to tunica media, they can occlude vessel
What are the two main regions of the respiratory system?
the conducting portion and the respiratory portion
What is the respiratory system?
Includes lungs and tube system linking sites of gas exchange with external environment
What are the parts of the conducting portion of the resp. system?
nasal cavity, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi and bronchioles
What are the parts of the respiratory portion of the resp. system?
resp. bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
What are alveoli?
sac-like structures making up major portion of lungs
Where is the main site for gas exchange of O2 and CO2 between inspired air and blood?
What is the function of the conducting portion?
passage for air to travel to and from lungs and condition air
What does the conducting portion have to aid with rigidity and flexibility?
smooth muscle, cartilage, elastic and collagen fibers
Respiratory epithelium and conducting portion
lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar with lots of goblet cells
What are the five cell types present in resp. epithelium?
ciliated columnar cells
mucous goblet cells
brush cells
basal cells
small granule cells