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49 Cards in this Set

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Granulosa Lutein Cells

In Corpus Luteum


Production of Progesterone


Formed from Granulosa Cells

Theca Lutein Cells

In Corpus Leteum


Production of Estrogen


Formed from Theca Interna Cells

Progestin Effect

Inhibition of LH surge --> ovulation


Thickens cervical mucus


Decreases estrogen driven cell proliferation

Estrogen Effect

Inhibition of FSH surge and follicle deveopment


Thin cervical mucus


increases endometrial proliferation

Three Structures of Oviduct

1) Infundibulum


2) Ampulla


3) Isthmus

Infundibulum

Near ovaries


Contains Fimbria - flared ends that capture ova

Ampulla

Middle section


Epithelium thrown into folds


Site of fertilization


Peristalic action of muscle layers --> moves ova down oviduct

Isthmus

near uterus

Epithelium of Oviduct

ciliated epithelia cells


secretory cells

Stratum Basale

In uterus

not lost during mentruation



Stratum Functionalis

superficial layer that grows sloughs off and reforms over the residual basal layer

Menstrual Cycle

1) Proliferative


2) Secretory


3) Menstruation

Proliferative Phase

a) Day 4-14


b) controlled by estrogen


c) Re-establishment of stratum functionalis


d) Endometrial glandular epithelial cells - tall, columnar


e) Mitotic figures


f) straight glands, narrow lumens

Secretory Phase

a) Day 15-28


b) controlled by corpus luteum


c) glands continue to elongate --> become wavy


d) lumens dilated with secretory products


e) endometrial epithelial cells accumulate glycogen



Menstruation

a) loss of stratum functionalis


b) about 2 weeks after ovulation in the absence of fertilization - loss of progesterone


c) progesterone withdrawal --> constriction of coiled arteries --> No blood flow --> degenerative changes, epithelium breaks down

Cervical Mucous Secretion:


1) Proliferative Phase


2) Secretory Phase

1) Proliferative Phase: watery, allowing passage of sperm


2) Secretory Phase: mucous, highly viscous

Cervix - which epithelium?

simple columnar

Leydig Cells

Testosterone Production


between interstium between tubule

Sertoli Cells

Nutritional support for spermatozoa


phagocytize residual bodies shed during spermatogenesis


Produce androgen binding protein (ABP) and inhibin


Produce anti-Mullerian hormone

Layers of Testes

1) tunica vaginalis (outer layer - protection)


2) dense fibrous connective tissues


3) tunica albugenia

Epithelium of Testes

complex germinative epithelium


contains cells of spermatogenic and Sertoli cells

Spermatogenic Series

1) Spermatogonia: in basal layer, divide at puberty


2) Spermatocytes (diploid 4N)


3) Spermatids (haploid 1N)


4) Spermatozoa (mature sperm)

Golgi phase

Proacrosomal granule accumulate in Golgi and combine to acrosomal vesicle


Centrioles move to end opposite from acrosome

Acrosomal phase

acrosome contains hydrolytic enzyme (serine protease, hyaluronidase, neuraminidiase, acid phosphatase) --> to digest zona pellucida


flagella formation


mitochondria aggregate around the middle piece

epitheilum of epididymis

pseudostratified columnar

epithelium of vas deferens
1) pseudostratified columnar with stereocilia

2) thick muscular coat - inner longitudinal, middle circular, outer longitudinal


3) adventitial layer - nerve and blood vessels

epithelium of seminal vesicles

1) pseudostratified with protein secreting cells


2) testosterone dependent


3) muscle - inner circular, outer longitudinal

epithelium of prostate gland

1) tall cuboidal, pseudostrafieid columnar


2) surround the urethra


3) folded mucosa

tissues of prostate gland

1) fibroelastic tissues - smooth around glands


2) corpora amylacea: concretion, fills gland lumne, increase in number with size and age, become calcified

bulbourethral glands

1) paired glands


2) located at the beginning of the membrane urethra


3) stimulate --> release of mucus secretion, major portion of preseminal fluid

anatomy of penis

1) paired corpora cavernosa and a single midline corpus spongiosum


2) found together by fibrous connective tissue capsule

corpora cavernosa

1) fills blood during erection


2) helicine arteries dilate upon stimulation and fill with blood


3) arteriovenous (AV) anastomosis between the artery of the penis and peripheral venous system closes --> increase in blood flow


4) peripheral veins compressed

innervation of corpora cavernosa

parasympathetic


sympathetic


spinal

vas deferens

1) pseudostratified epithelium


2) thick muscular coat: long, cir, long


3) adventitial layer: nerve & blood vessels


4) sympathetic stimulation during ejaculation

blood brain barrier

1) extensive vasculature in CNS and PNS


2) basal lamina separate


3) cells: astrocytes


4) characteristics: tight junction in endothelium (continuous capillaries)

blood air barrier

1) continuous capillaries


2) basal lamina continues


3) cell: pneumocytes type I


4) characteristics: allows gas exchange

blood thymus barrier

1) continuous endothelium, fused basement membrane


2) cells: pericytes, epithelial reticular cells, macrophages


3) characteristics: occluding junctions

blood testes barrier

1) Sertoli cells line seminiferoius tubules

eccrine

1) exocytosis


2) temperature regulation sweat

apocrine

1) pinches off


2) milky substance


3) BO secretion

holocrine

1) secretes entire cell and secretion


2) secretes oily substances, acne

pampiniform plexus

veins surrounding each testicular artery and returns cooler blood from the scrotum to the body and cools the blood in the testicular artery before it reaches the testis

stereocilia

- actually long nonmotile microvilli


- microfilament core

Leydig cells

testosterone production

Cells in women that produce following hormones:


1) androgen


2) estrogen


3) FSH


4) LH


5) Progesterone

1) theca interna and theca lutein


2) granulosa cells and granulosa lutein


3) pituitary gonadotrophs


4) pituitary gonadotrophs


5) granulosa lutein

Cells in women that produce following hormones:


6) prolactin


7) oxytocin


8) hypothalamic neurons

6) pituitary lactotrophs


7) hypothalamic neurons


8) granulosa lutein cells

Which process is the primary cause of the acidic pH in thevaginal lumen?

Bacterial conversion of glycogen into lactic acid

Which structure remains part of the ovary after ovulation?

theca interna

process of oogenesis

1) primary oocyte (in prophase I)


2) primordial follicle


3) primary follicle


4) secondary follicle


5) Graafian follicle (end of meiosis I)


6) ovulation (meiosis II)