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133 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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Cell Membrane has three main functions:


1.


2.


3.

1. As a Selective Barrier


2. To Control of Intracellular ion content


3. Signaling/Signal Recognition

_________ are small particles composed of rRNA and proteins, they function for protein synthesis.

Ribosomes are small particles composed of rRNA and proteins, they function for protein synthesis.

___________ is an organelle studded with ribosomes that also functions in protein synthesis.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is an organelle studded with ribosomes that also functions in protein synthesis.

Metabolism of lipid and glycogen, detoxification and Ca+ sequestration are functions of the ____________________.

Metabolism of lipid and glycogen, detoxification and Ca+ sequestration are functions of the Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum.

This organelle consists of smooth membranous sacs containing enzymes. It functions to complete the protein synthesis process.

the Golgi Apparatus.

These membrane limited vesicles contain enzymes function for intracellular digestion.

Lysosomes

The _______________ is a membrane enclosed organelle that functions for ATP production and maintain body temperature.

The mitochondria is a membrane enclosed organelle that functions for ATP production and maintain body temperature.

The command center of the cell is known as the ________________. It contains chromatin, nucleolus and the nuclear envelope.

The command center of the cell is known as the nucleus. It contains chromatin, nucleolus and the nuclear envelope.

Found inside the nucleus, the ______________ actively produces proteins.

Found inside the nucleus, the nucleolus actively produces proteins.

The ________________ is the double membrane inside the nucleus that is continuous with the Rough endoplasmic reticulum.

The nuclear envelope is the double membrane inside the nucleus that is continuous with the Rough endoplasmic reticulum.

Found inside the nucleus, ____________ contains DNA and associated proteins that code for all cell functions.

Found inside the nucleus, chromatin contains DNA and associated proteins that code for all cell functions.

The __________________ is composed of polyhedral cells, strongly adhered to each other via basement membrane (desmosomes) and covers the tubes, cavities and body surfaces, forms glands

The epithelium is composed of polyhedral cells, strongly adhered to each other via basement membrane (desmosomes) and covers the tubes, cavities and body surfaces, forms glands

Functions of the Epithelium:


1.


2.


3.

Functions of the Epithelium:


1. Protection


2. Absorption


3. Secretion

Types of Epithelium (7)

1. Simple squamous


2. Simple cuboidal


3. Simple columnar


4. Stratified squamous


5. Stratified cuboidal


6. Psuedostratified columnar


7. Transitional

Cells exhibit sidedness. The apical surface of a cell interacts with the _________.

Lumen

Cells exhibit sidedness. The lateral surface of a cell has _______________ ______________.

Intercellular junctions.

Cells exhibit sidedness. The basal surface of a cell interacts with the _________.

underlying connective tissue.

Lateral surface junctions include:


1.


2.


3.

1. Tight Junctions


2. Adhering Junctions


3. Gap Junctions

Tight junctions are also known as _________ _________. They function to _______________.

AKA: Zonula Occludens



they function to seal off the paracellular area and play a key role in regulation of permeability in epithelial tissues.

Two types of adhering junctions are _________ _________ or ____________ __________. They function to ____________________.

Types: Zonula adherens or Macula Adherens (aka: desmosomes)



they function to adhere adjacent cells.

Gap Junctions function to ______________________.

Permit communication

Adhering Junctions utilize these two molecules to adhere.

Cadherins and catenins

Gap Junctions are formed of six proteins called ______________. These six together form a _____________.

Connexin, connexon


These are membrane-covered structures that extend from the cell surface. They feature a 9+2 array of microtubules and are good for moving debris and mucous.

Cilia

Based on the number of cell layers, and shape of the cells at the apical layer, these are the two main types of epithelia: ____________ & ___________.

Simple (one cell layer thick) & Stratified (>1 layer thick)

This type of epithelia function for filtration, diffusion, absorption and secretion.

Simple Epithelia

This type of epithelia function for protection and renewal.

Stratified Epithelia

This type of epithelial cell in a single layer of flattened 'scale-like' cells. Examples include: lining of blood vessels and heart, and pulmonary alveoli

Simple Squamous

This type of epithelial cell is square in profile and can be found in glands and tubules.

Simple Cuboidal

This type of epithelial cell is tall and rectangular and the nuclei are generally found in the basal region of the cytoplasm. They can be found lining the digestive tract.

Simple Columnar

This type of epithelial cell always contact the basal lamina, but don't always reach the apical surface. They frequently vary in shape, and can be found lining the upper airways.

Pseudostratified Columnar

This type of epithelial cell are at the luminal surface and are sometimes keratinized. Their basal layer is a growth zone. They compose the epidermis, oral cavity and vaginal lining.

Stratified Squamous

This type of epithelial cell is 'dome-shaped' at the apical surface when relaxed. They are flattened when the organ is distended. They are found lining the urinary bladder and ureter.

Transitional

These glands contact the lumen via a duct, and they secrete their product apically.

Exocrine Grands

These glands lack ducts, and secrete their product (hormones) basally.

Endocrine Glands

The functions of connective tissue include:


1.


2.


3.


4.


5.

1. Supports, connects, protects and binds other tissues.


2. Matrix for intercellular communication and exchange.


3. Site of tissue reactions (inflammation)


4. Insulation, thermoregulation


5. Vascular support for other tissues

Major components of connective tissue are:


1.


2.

1. Cells


2. Extracellular Matrix

The extracellular matrix is composed of:


1.


2.


3.

1. Fibers (collagen, reticular, elastin)


2. Ground substance (glycoproteins, proteoglycans)


3. Interstitial fluids

Fibers are long protein polymers that are produced by ______________.

Fibroblasts

Collagen functions to _________________.

Provide tensile strength

Elastin functions to _________________.

Provide elasticity.

Reticular fibers function to ___________________.

Provide support.

Collagen, the most abundant protein in the human body, has 3 sub-types:


1.


2.


3.

1. Fibrillar (Types I, II, III)


2. Sheet Forming (IV)


3. Linking/Anchoring (VII)

The molecular subunit of collagen is _____________. It's structure is a ________ _________.

Procollagen, Triple Helix

This fiber is thinner than Collagen Type I. It supports organs that are prone to bending and it can be identified with silver staining. It often has a coiled appearance.

Elastin

Identify this tissue

Identify this tissue

Brown Fat, Adipose Tissue

This is an example of ___________, ___________ connective tissue

This is an example of ___________, ___________ connective tissue

This is an example dense, regular connective tissue.

This is an example of ___________, ___________ connective tissue

This is an example of ___________, ___________ connective tissue

This is an example dense, irregular connective tissue.

This is an example of _________ cartilage.

This is an example of _________ cartilage.

This is an example of elastic cartilage.

These cells are ________.

These cells are ________.

These cells are fibroblasts.

This type of cartilage is called ______________.

This type of cartilage is called ______________.

This type of cartilage is called fibrocartilage.

This is an example of _________ cartilage.

This is an example of _________ cartilage.

This is an example of hyaline cartilage.

This is an example of ___________ connective tissue

This is an example of ___________ connective tissue

This is an example of loose connective tissue

Identify this cell type

Identify this cell type

Macrophages

Identify this cell type

Identify this cell type

Mast Cell

Identify the highlighted cell.

Identify the highlighted cell.

Mast Cell

Identify this cell found in connective tissue.

Identify this cell found in connective tissue.

Plasma Cell

These cells are found in connective tissue

These cells are found in connective tissue

Plasma cells

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of psuedostratified columnar epithelia.

The arrows are pointing out ____________ fibers.

The arrows are pointing out ____________ fibers.

Reticular fibers

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of simple columnar epithelia.

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of simple cuboidal epithelia.

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of simple squamous epithelia.

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of stratified squamous epithelia.

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of _________________ epithelia.

This is an example of transitional epithelia.

Identify this tissue.

Identify this tissue.

White Fat, Adipose Tissue

___________ fibers are formed from Type III collagen fibrils and form a delicate, mesh like network. Their function is to support highly cellular organs.

Reticular fibers are formed from Type III collagen fibrils and form a delicate, mesh like network. Their function is to support highly cellular organs.

__________ are large proteins with branched carbohydrates. They function to adhere cells to the basal lamina via integrin.

Glycoproteins are large proteins with branched carbohydrates. They function to adhere cells to the basal lamina via integrin.

Fibronectin, Laminin and Chondronectin are examples of _______________.

Fibronectin, Laminin and Chondronectin are examples of glycoproteins.

________________ are long chains of disaccharide molecules that provide lubrication and allow diffusion.

Glycosaminoglycans are long chains of disaccharide molecules that provide lubrication and allow diffusion.

Hyaloronic acid is an example of a ________________.

Hyaloronic acid is an example of a glycosaminoglycan.

These moleculare have a protein core, with carbohydrates attached to glycosaminoglycans. They provide structure to the matrix, hold water and sequester signaling molecules.

Proteoglycans

Aggrecan, found in cartilage, is an example of a _____________.

Aggrecan, found in cartilage, is an example of a proteoglycan.

These spindle shaped cells are the most common type of connective tissue cell. They synthesize fibers and matrix substances.

Fibroblasts.

____________ are phagocytic cells derived from blood monocytes. They have an irregular shape, and they function to endocytose particles. They are the body's first line of immune defense.

Macrophages are phagocytic cells derived from blood monocytes. They have an irregular shape, and they function to endocytose particles. They are the body's first line of immune defense.

Found in connective tissues and lymphatic organs, these cells have an eccentric (clock-like) face. They are derived from B cells, and function to synthesize antibodies.

Plasma cells

These are highly granular cells that store mediators of inflammation. They contain membrane-bound receptors for IgE.

Mast Cells.

This unilocar tissue functions as insulation and shock absorption. Norepinepherine activates lipases to break it down into circulating triglycerides.

White Adipose Tissue.

This multi-locar tissue is found mainly in newborns and hibernating animals. It functions for thermogenesis via the protein thermogenin.

Brown Adipose Tissue

Name the three types of cartilage:


1.


2.


3.


Name the three types of cartilage:


1. Hyaline


2. Elastic


3. Fibrocartilage

___________ is the most common type of cartilage.

Hyaline cartilage is the most common type of cartilage.

This type of cartilage can be found in joint surfaces, respiratory tract and nasal passages.

Hyaline Cartilage.

This type of cartilage composes the epiglottis and the external ear.

Elastic Cartilage

This type of cartilage can be found on the intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis.

Fibrocartilage.

___________ growth is important in the post-natal period. "Chondrogenic cells" of pericondrial connective tissue become chondroblasts. These condroblasts secrete matrix and become encased in lacunae forming __________________.

Appositional growth is important in the post-natal period. "Chondrogenic cells" of pericondrial connective tissue become chondroblasts. These condroblasts secrete matrix and become encased in lacunae forming chondrocytes.

__________ growth occurs in the epiphyseal growth plates of long bones. It occurs within a mass of pre-existing cartilage.

Interstitial growth occurs in the epiphyseal growth plates of long bones. It occurs within a mass of pre-existing cartilage.

When existing chondrocytes proliferate and secrete matrix and individual lacunae then separate as new matrix is deposited, _______________ growth is occurring.

When existing chondrocytes proliferate and secrete matrix and individual lacunae then separate as new matrix is deposited, Interstitial growth is occurring.

__________ consists of osteocytes embedded in a calcified matrix.

Bone consists of osteocytes embedded in a calcified matrix.

These cells develop from osteoproginators. They are active secretory cells at the margins of growing bone spicules (osteoids)

These cells develop from osteoproginators. They are active secretory cells at the margins of growing bone spicules (osteoids)

Osteoblasts

These cells are derived from matrix entrapped osteoblasts. They communicated and diffuse metabolites through dendritic processes and gap junctions.

These cells are derived from matrix entrapped osteoblasts. They communicated and diffuse metabolites through dendritic processes and gap junctions.

Osteocytes

These cells, derived from blood monocytes, are multinucleated and reabsorb bone matrix, releasing Ca++ and result in bone remodeling.

These cells, derived from blood monocytes, are multinucleated and reabsorb bone matrix, releasing Ca++ and result in bone remodeling.

Osteoclasts

The two mechanisms of bone development are:


1.


2.

The two mechanisms of bone development are:


1. Intramembranous ossification


2. Endochondral ossification

When a bone develops within the mesenchyme it is considered _____________ ossification. This generally occurs in dermal bones.

When a bone develops within the mesenchyme it is considered intramembranous ossification.

When a bone develops within cartilage it is considered ________________ ossification. All skeletal bones below the base of the skull are formed this way.

When a bone develops within cartilage it is considered endochondral ossification.

Zone 1: Resting Cartilage


Zone 2: Proliferating Cartilage


Zone 3: Hypertrophic cartilage


Zone 4: Calcified cartilage


Zone 5: Ossification

Immature bone, also known as _____________, morphologically appears "spongy" or trabecular.

Immature bone, also known as primary, morphologically appears "spongy" or trabecular.

Mature bone, also known as ___________, can either be compact or spongy.

Mature bone, also known as secondary, can either be compact or spongy.

Secondary bone, if compact, can be known as "______________" due to the layers of haversian systems.

Secondary bone, if compact, can be known as "lamellar" due to the layers of haversian systems.

These horizontal canals run perpendicular to Haversian canals.

Volkmann's canals

What is this image depicting?

What is this image depicting?

Osteons, concentric lamilar structures that produce compact bone.

The three histological varities of muscle include:


1.


2.


3.

The three histological varities of muscle include:


1. Skeletal


2. Smooth


3. Cardiac

____________ muscle is striated due to the presence of light ______ bands, and dark ____ bands.

Skeletal muscle is striated due to the presence of light I bands, and dark A bands.

Identify A, B, C, D

Identify A, B, C, D

A = Epimysium (surrounds whole muscle)


B = Perimysium (surrounds fasicles)


C = Fascicle (clusters of fibers)


D = Endomysium (surrounds single fiber)

Sort these from interior to exterior:


Perimysium Fascicle


Endomysium Epimysium


Interior -> Exterior :


Endomysium, Fascicle, Perimysium, Epimysium

Identify this tissue

Identify this tissue

Skeletal Muscle

Parallel bundles of fibers extending along the length of skeletal muscle are known as ________.

Parallel bundles of fibers extending along the length of skeletal muscle are known as myofibrils.

Identify this muscle.

Identify this muscle.

Skeletal Muscle

Composed of actin and myosin and separated by Z lines, _________ are the repeating functional units of skeletal muscle.

Composed of actin and myosin and separated by Z lines, Sarcomeres are the repeating functional units of skeletal muscle.

Identify A-E

Identify A-E

A: Z disc


B: I Band


C: A Band


D: M Line


E: H Zone

Titan attaches myosin to the ______________.

Titan attaches myosin to the Z line.

___________ are sarcolemmal invaginations that allow for action potential to be spread throughout the fiber.

Transverse tubules are sarcolemmal invaginations that allow for action potential to be spread throughout the fiber.

Identify this muscle type

Identify this muscle type

Cardiac Muscle

Cardiac muscles feature ___________________ which are gap and adhering junctions that spread action potential, allowing the heart to function as a unit.

Cardiac muscles feature intercalated disks which are gap and adhering junctions that spread action potential, allowing the heart to function as a unit.

Identify this feature of cardiac muscle

Identify this feature of cardiac muscle

Intercalated disks

Identify this area

Identify this area

Purkinje fibers

Identify this muscle.

Identify this muscle.

Smooth Muscle

_____________ features elongated mononuclear cells, it is non-striated, with no T-tubule. it functions involuntarily and is regulated by hormones and autonomic nerves.

Smooth muscle features elongated mononuclear cells, it is non-striated, with no T-tubule. it functions involuntarily and is regulated by hormones and autonomic nerves.

A neuron is composed of these three parts:


1.


2.


3.

A neuron is composed of these three parts:


1. Cell Body (perikaryon)


2. Dendrites (receives stimuli)


3. Axon (conducts impulses)

__________ tissue, a substitute of connective tissue, supports neural survival and activity.

Glial tissue, a substitute of connective tissue, supports neural survival and activity.

Identify this cell

Identify this cell

Neuron

Identify these glial cells

Identify these glial cells

Oligodendrocytes

______________ produce the myelin around axons in the CNS, and often have a 'fried egg' appearance.

Oligodendrocytes

Identify these cells "?"

Identify these cells "?"

Astrocytes

___________ are scavenger cells that originate from blood monocytes. They are smaller than astrocytes and frequently elongated.

Microglia are scavenger cells that originate from blood monocytes. They are smaller than astrocytes and frequently elongated.

_______________ is produced by ependymal cells in the choroid plexus. It provides the necessary ions and a cushion effect for the CNS.

Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by ependymal cells in the choroid plexus. It provides the necessary ions and a cushion effect for the CNS.

Who Am I?



- I have gyri and sulci.


- I have 6 layers of cortical gray matter


- Pyramidal cells are my predominant neuron.

I am the Cerebrum.

Who Am I?



- I have gyri and sulci.


- I have 3 layers of cortical gray matter


- Purkinje cells are my predominant neuron.

I am the Cerebellum.

The six layers of cerebral gray matter are (in order):


1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.

The six layers of cerebral gray matter are (in order):


1. Molecular


2. Ext. Granular


3. Ext. Pyramidal


4. Int. Granular


5. Int. Pyramidal


6. Multiform



Identify these three layers of the cerebrum

Identify these three layers of the cerebrum

1. Pia Mater


2. Gray Matter


3. White Matter

Identify these three layers of cerebellum.

Identify these three layers of cerebellum.

1. Molecular Layer


2. Purkinje cells


3. Granular layer

Identify these areas of the cerebellum.

Identify these areas of the cerebellum.

(upper) Gray matter


(lower) White matter

The cell membrane of the ___________ cell has a higher lipid content, and provides myelin sheathing in the PNS.

The cell membrane of the Schwann cell has a higher lipid content, and provides myelin sheathing in the PNS.

______________ are gaps in the myelin layer that provide saltatory conduction.

Nodes of Ranvier are gaps in the myelin layer that provide saltatory conduction.