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23 Cards in this Set

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Spectral Evidence (1690's)
Spectral Evidence was the presentation of testimony brought forth by those who claimed to see literally the ghosts of the dead or apparitions of the living who were in some way communicating either information regarding a crime or inflicting some witchcraft related torment. Prior to the Salem Witch Trials it was accepted as basis for an inquiry related to murder trials. It was widely used in the Salem Witch Trials which led to the execution of 20 individuals in 1691 and 1692. Cotton Mather defended its use while his father advised using caution. Both consented to the idea that it was potentially flawed as evidence due to its succeptability to a Satanic influence
Smith, Captain John (1580-1631)
Born in January 1580, He was a leader in establishing the Virginia Colony, Jamestown. He was the first English explorer to map the Chesapeake Bay area and New England. He eventually died in June 1631. (Foner - 55,59, 63-65)
Second Continental Congress (May 1775)
Convened in May 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; authorized the raising of an army, printed money to pay for it, and appointed George Washington its commander. They managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. (Foner – 197-99, 202,210,220)
Rhode Island Settlement est. 1636
-       In 1636, Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony for his beliefs in separation of church and state along with freedom of religion.
-       He took refuge among the Narragansett Indians, who occupied the country at the head of Narragansett bay. 
-       Canocicus, the chief, presented him with a large tract of land, which Williams named “providence” in remembrance of the manner in which he believed God had directed him towards.
-       Settlers from Massachusetts followed him and were hospitably received.
-       Anne Hutchinson was also banished for speaking out against the church in Massachusetts bay.  She then formed Portsmouth.
Intolerable Acts 1774
The Intolerable Acts of 1774, or also known as the Coercive Acts, was the British's' response to the Boston Tea Party. This "act" stated that the british government would close the port of Boston to all trade until the tea was paid for. Martial Law was imposed and the Massachusetts Charter of 1691 was revoked. Another punishment to the colonists for dumping the tea into the boston harbor was that parliament also empowered military commanders to lodge soldiers in private homes of the colonists. The Intolerable Act ultimately united the colonies in opposition to what was widely seen as a direct threat to their political freedom. (Foner Textbook Chapter 5; The American Revolution Powerpoint- Coercive Acts, 1774 Slide)
Starving Time, Jamestown 1607
Jamestown, the second attempt at colonization by the English in America was established in 1607. Never properly outfitted for long term isolated development and due to poor sanitation and mosquitoes the settlers experienced very high mortality rates. In 1609 a devastating winter so bereft of food it was remembered as “starving time”, dropped their numbers even further, leaving only 65 colonists alive. John Smith, in an effort to preserve the colony’s existence established firm control of the colony, difficult due to the population being made up of mostly high status craftsmen and sons of nobles who according to Smith, “would rather starve than work”. It was so unbearable the colonists actually abandoned the settlement until intercepted at sea by reinforcements who persuaded them to return. - (foner 63, slide 25 of ppt 1.)
King Phillip’s War 1675-1676
King’s Phillips war was a conflict between Native Americans led by Metacom, the leader of the Wampanoag tribe and British colonists between 1675 and 1676. It was the bloodiest and most bitter conflict between Native Americans and colonists living in colonial New England. During the conflict over 80 New England towns were burned, 1000 colonists were killed and settlers in New England were pushed back to the Atlantic Coast. Over 3000 Native Americans were killed during the war and the remaining populations were either killed or sold into slavery in the West Indies.
Mather, Increase and Cotton 1690's
Increase was the father of Cotton. Both were extremely influential in the proceedings of the Salem Witch Trials, owing mostly to their status as powerful Puritan Pastors. Increase was the more cautious of the pair, writing in 1692 “Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits” to be wary of testimony given by those claiming to be possessed or those confessing or accusing others while faced with execution. Cotton would remain a staunch defender of the trials, representing them as just along with the use of spectral evidence. Cotton’s “Wonders of the Invisible World” 1693, outlined his defense, citing prior use of spectral evidence in murder trials as precedent for its use. (foner 112, exercise #1 salem witch trials handout.)
New France est. 1608
New France was the name for the French colonies in America. They first began settling there around 1608, when Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec. They went to explore in order to find a Northwest Passage and to find gold. In 1673, Jesuit priest Jacques Marquette and fur trader Louis Joliet found the Mississippi River. By 1681, they were in the Gulf of Mexico and claimed all the land around the Mississippi. By 1700, they only had about 19,000 in the colonies, most of which were men. They focused on fur trading rather than agriculture as the basis of their economy. New France, unlike England and Spain, tried to have friendly relations with the Native Americans. They did not view the natives as inferiors.
The Dutch first started trying to colonize in America in 1609, by a man named Henry Hudson. He was an Englishman employed by the Dutch to find a Northwest Passage. He traveled down the Hudson River (named after him, by the way), and claimed what is now present day New York City for the Netherlands. In 1614, Dutch traders established an outpost near present day Albany at Fort Orange. Ten years later they had settlers on Manhattan Island. They dominated international commerce, and Amsterdam was the top shipping and banking center in Europe. They made advancements in painting, philosophy, and science, and also invented the joint stock company. They had freedom of press and religion, unusual at the time. Slaves possessed rights in the colonies. To get people to go, they offered free land and cheap livestock after 6 years of work. They had 1 million people settle in New Netherlands. However, only 9,000 were there by the mid 1660s. They were also humane to the natives, and forbade colonization until the land was bought. There was, however, a 3 year war between the settlers and the Algonquian Indians.
Non-Importation Agreements 1760's
Initially a response to the Stamp act of 1765, many colonies adopted a policy of boycotting British goods. This is significant because it is identified as the first major cooperative action among Britain’s mainland colonies. This boycott was intended to communicate to Britain that the colonies right to consent to taxation was essential. (Foner 188) They were a part of a successful campaign to have the Stamp Act repealed. Later, in 1768, the Townsend act would revive the need for these Non Importation agreements as colonies once again used them to protest taxes on goods imported into the colonies. These agreements started again in Boston but soon became widespread which promoted the use of American goods. It was supported by colonial artisans, but resisted by some merchants in New York and Philadelphia though they eventually signed on. Even George Washington wrote in support on non-importation citing it as a method of “retrenching expenses” without advertising financial distress.
Paxton Boys 1763
The Paxton Boys began as a small group of mostly Scotch-Irish Presbyterians who lived in Dauphin County (then called Paxtang). On Dec. 14, 1763 a mob of Paxton Boys killed 20 Indians. 6 killed on the spot, 14 taken captive and killed a couple weeks later. They also attacked the wrong group of Indians and this essentially added another group of Indians to not like the colonists. 1764 the Paxton boys marched on Philadelphia protesting the oligarchy’s lenient policy towards the Indians. Benjamin franklin resolved the problem diplomatically, not militarily and the Paxton boys returned home.
Penn’s Sylvania est. 1681
meaning “Penn’s (William Penn) Woods”. It was Established March 4th, 1681. Established by William Penn and the king of England had a debt to pay to Penn’s father so he named it after the Penn’s. Philadelphia was the biggest city by the 18th century and primarily a Quaker region although it was known as one of the most diverse and religion friendly of all colonies. William Penn also had a vision of seeing the Englishmen and Indians living together on the same land happily, therefore making Pennsylvania the most progressive with indian relationships. Most popular port for import/export which played a huge role in importation of slavery and goods.
Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776
A group of artisans and lower-class citizens banded together to challenge the anti-revolutionist in Pennsylvania. They succeeded, and in 1776 wrote their own constitution which focused on equality. After this, every state began to write their own constitution.
Protestant Reformation 1517
In 1517, Martin Luther posted his Ninety-Five Theses, which criticized the catholic church. This sparked the protestant revolution and led to a rise of new protestant churches independent from Rome. The reformation divided Europe and started a religious clash that would go on for centuries.
Puritan Great Migration 1620-1640
The Puritan Great Migration occurred from about 1620-1640. During this time, Puritans from England traveled to Massachusetts, mostly to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. They left England in search of religious freedom. Approximately 20,000 men, women, and children moved from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. These emigrants set up the basis for American society.
Quaker Invasion of Massachussetts 1656
In 1656, Quakers began to move into Massachusetts from England. There they met persecution by the Puritans. They still continued to come to Massachusetts and spread their beliefs and tried to practice their religion freely. Quakers received support from King Charles II. But they were still persecuted. As other groups moved into the area, declined, and finally by 1675, Quakers were allowed to live and practice their religion freely in Massachusetts. This helped to open the area to others.
Restoration of 1660
-       Charles I fled to France after Oliver Cromwell’s parliamentarians defeated King Charles I’s Royalist in 1646.
-       In 1649, Charles II attempted to save his father’s life by presenting parliament a signed blank sheet of paper granting whatever terms were required.  However, Oliver Cromwell was determined to execute Charles I and on January 30, 1649, the king was beheaded in London.
       Charles II was proclaimed the king of England by the scots and by supporters from Ireland and England.
-       On 1651, Charles II invaded England but was defeated by Cromwell at the Battle of Worcester.
-       After Cromwell’s death in 1658, the English republican experiment faltered.
-       In 1660, general George Monck met with Charles and arranged to restore him in exchange for a promise of amnesty and religious toleration for his former enemies.
-       On May 25th, 1660, Charles landed at Dover and four days later entered London in triumph, in what is know as the English Restoration.
            The restoration of the English monarchy when Charles II assumed the throne in 1660 sparked a new period of colonial expansion.  The government chartered new trading ventures, such as the Royal African Company, which was given a monopoly of the Slave trade.
Loyalists (1775–1783)
American colonists who remained loyal to the Kingdom of Great Britain (and the British monarchy) during the American Revolutionary War. At the time they were often called Tories, Royalists,
Mercantilism (mid 17th century / 1650's)
Beginning around 1650, the British government pursued a policy of mercantilism in international trade. Mercantilism stipulates that in order to build economic strength, a nation must export more than it imports. To achieve this favorable balance of trade, the English passed regulatory laws exclusively benefiting the British economy. These laws created a trade system whereby Americans provided raw goods to Britain, and Britain used the raw goods to produce manufactured goods that were sold in European markets and back to the colonies. As suppliers of raw goods only, the colonies could not compete with Britain in manufacturing. English ships and merchants were always favored, excluding other countries from sharing in the British Empire’s wealth. Gave way to the Triangular Trade.
Salem Witch Trials 1692-93
a series of hearings and prosecutions of people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693. The episode is one of the nation's most notorious cases of mass hysteria, and has been used in political rhetoric and popular literature as a vivid cautionary tale about the dangers of isolationism, religious extremism, false accusations and lapses in due process. the Salem witchcraft was the rock on which the theocracy shattered.
Stamp Act 1765
imposed a direct tax by the British Parliament specifically on the colonies of British America, and it required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.[1][2] These printed materials were legal documents, magazines, newspapers and many other types of paper used throughout the colonies. The purpose of the tax was to help pay for troops stationed in North America after the British victory in the Seven Years' War. The British government felt that the colonies were the primary beneficiaries of this military presence, and should pay at least a portion of the expense. Americans said there was no military need for them because the Americans had always protected themselves, and suggested it was rather an example of British patronage to surplus British officers and career soldiers. first significant joint colonial response to any British measure, also petitioned Parliament and the King.
Indentured Servants (17th Century introduced to colonies)
Indentured servitude has been around for a long part of British History. It was first introduced to the America's by englishmen in 1619 when colonists brought the first Africans (20 people) to Virginia to work as Indentured Servants. The term indentured is defined as "contract, and thats exactly what being an indentured servant was about. Servants were bound under contract for 5 to 7 years to work and once their contract was over they were given land and freed. This was a type of temporary servitude but it was also brutal- 2 out of 5 servants died during indenture. By the 17th century 2/3 of the population of colonial American was indentured servants.This was a great opportunity for alot of englands poor people who wanted to come to america and start a new life (Age of Exploration Powerpoint: Jamestown, Virginia Govt., English Emigration to America, and Types of Servitude Slides). Indentured servitude was very popular in the American colonies up until slavery became a huge trend in 1680's (Age of Exploration Powerpoint: Lower South Slide).