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125 Cards in this Set

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Why did the Germanic war leader often become a king?
The Herzogo, or war leaders, would take over during times of war, but this could become extended periods of time, which led to kingship.
Why was the moot inefficient in time of war?
It was impossible to make decisions amongst a large group of people immediately which is what is needed during time of war.
Byzantine Empire
the eastern empire of Theodosius and Zeno that included the major cities of Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, Rome, and Constaninople
"emperor that never slept"- remade the Byznatine Empire by creating the Justinian Code, archetecture, demanding taxes, and warfare
Empress Irene
widow of Leo IV and ruled on her son's behalf and then had him killed when he was old enough to rule himself
Breakers of icons; oppponents of the mediating use of icons (religious images) in worship. Most emperors supported this faction in eighth- and early ninth-century Byzantium
St. Augustine (354-430)
bishop in North Africa had many important writing for Christianity
City of God (413-426)
book that St. Augustine wrote that tried to explain that just because a empire falls, Christian or not, does not mean God’s empire will fall
writings of barbarians says that they came from here or Scandanavia
Aspects of Early Germanic Government
Moot, war, Herzogo, Goldwine, Cyning, Wergeld, peace and order from family
tribal assembly made of family bosses (eldest male) that enforces the laws or customs of the tribe (“law finders”)
war leaders
herzogo distributed the spoils of conquest so this was his nickname
kindred or extended family and this is where the word king came from because the kindred of the assembly would become ruler during wartimes, which sometimes became a long time, hence king
“man gold”- the worth of a man against other men
Flagellum Dei
"Scourge of God"-these were barbarians that were seen as a great whip sent by God- this led to people dehumanizing the barbarians
Victricius of Rouen
he realized the barbarians were people and they needed God also
valley of heaven- this is the thought where after you die, you will go here to fight all day and party all night
Muhammad (Ahmad) 570-632
founder of Muslim religion
“recitation”- all these messages written down and the book of the Muslims
Number of Muslims
1.2 billion
“striving”- struggle for personal holiness- striving for Allah
military leader of Muslim world- successor of Muhammad
Battle of Yarmuk 8/20/636
first battle in conquering for Allah; They were battling Philistine Army and gained control of the Holy Land
Battle of Tours/Poitiers
Muslims lost this battle
Charles “Martel” Mayor of the Palace (714-741)
defeated Muslims
The Hijra
In early Islam, the journey undertaken by Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 in order to govern Medina and calm its internal political dissension
The 'Abbasids
group that overthrew the Umayyads everywhere but in Spain and established this new caliphate; they wanted to govern the empire according to religious principles
Italian governor that was the Ostrogarthic king the great; roman title meant less than his ostrogothic army; most culitvated, capable, and sophisticated barbarian
Augustine of Canterbary
a missionary that attempt to convert the English to Christian; laid the foundations for a heirarchical bishop-eentered church based on the Roman model
conqueror, religious reformer, state builder, patron of the arts, united the Frankish kingdom
Missi Dominici
team of counts and bishops that examined the state of each country in the Carolingian Empire on behalf of the king
The Rus
swedish merchant vikings
Otto I
was crowned emperor of Germany and revived the the empire of charlamagne in only the eastern half
The Capetians
dynasty in medieval French monarchy from 987-1314; replaced the Carolingians
monastery that led to church reform in eastern france; granted immunity from secular interference; became the center of an extraordinary expanison of Benedictine monasticism throughout the west
Thomas a Becket
archbishop of canterbury that refused to accept the king's claim to the jurisdiction over clergy and was exhiled; when he was allowed to return in 1170 he was killed within the year
Francis of Assisi
son of a prosperous Italian merchant; rejected his luxurious life in favor of one of radical poverty and service to others; created the Order of Friars Minor (Francisians)
William the Conqueror
He was one of three that disputed over the English kingship but obtained it
The Investiture Controversy
the practice by which kings and emperors appointed bishops and invested themm with the symbols of theri office, but for th efirst time the public opinion and opposistion played a crucial role in politics, and the idea of separation of church and state arose
Magna Carta
The "great charter" limiting royal pwoer that KIng John was forced to sign in 1215
The Golden Bull
The edict of emperor Charles IV in 1356 recognizing that German princes and kings were autonomous rulers
The Black Death
The virulent combination of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plagues that destroyed between one third and one half of the population of Europe between 1347 and 1352
Avignon Papacy
French popes and French cardinals that ruled the Church for 70 years; in pursuit of political and financial rewards, they had simply lost sight of their roles as religious leaders.
The Great Schism
The conflict (1378-1415) between two sets ofrival popes based in Rome and Avignon that divided the loyalties of states and individuals across Europe
Jan Hus
Theologian that led reform movement between Czech and German speaking minority that ultimatley challneged the authority of the Roam Chruch and became the direct predecessor of the great Reformation of the sixteenth century
living together system for the Jews in Spain
The Columbian Exchange
The transfer of microbes, animals, and plants in the encounters between Europeans and Native Americans during the age of exploration
Part of a trio of Tuscan poets
A mercenary military leader who sold his servicesand that of his private army ot the highest bidder; used in the wars between the Italian city-states
Part of a trio of Tuscan poets. Italian poet that accused the Avignon popes and their conrtiers of every possible crime and sin, but they were no worse than any other great lords of the fourteenth century.
The revolt of French peasants against the aristocracy and crown in 1358. It was part of the struggle for rights caused by the labor shortage after the Black Death
Joan of Arc
an illiterate but deeply religious girl who bore an incredible hope that she had heard the voices of the saints that said she would save orleans. She did, but later was burned at the stake.
dames, norweigians, swedes
Viking Age
ca. 793-1600
Where were the vikings?
Ireland, Britain, France, Spain, Russia
Why did the vikings spread?
Overpopulation & Political Consolidation
“dragon ship”- massively cool viking attack vessel, could sail in 36-40 inches deep-could sail really close to shore
Sun Stone
magnetized rock that helped with navigation
What was the vikings known for doing?
Raids, Invasion- Danelaw, Normandy, Colonization- Iceland, Greenland, “Vinland”
Purpose of Feudalism
“man”-becoming the man of someone; vassals want to be allied to the lord; vassal prospect kneels to potential lord while unarmed and helmet-less and with praying hands
if anyone breaks this “feudal contract” the deal is completely off
(“fidelitas”-faithfulness to your commitment); sealed with a kiss
vassal gives everything he has, but the lord gives it back…very symbolic scenario
Leige Lordship
one lord gets most allegiance if there is more than one lord
if lord is a jerk, then you are able to dump the lord and get a new one
if vassal doesnt protect, then you are able to dump the vassal and get a new ones
Ends September 7, 1848
large estates like the Romans that offers possible protection
they are almost slaves that lived on the manors, and they lived there instead of in the wilderness as free farmers for protection; also farming was easier in a group; serf is considered to be part of the land and will not be sent away like a slave can
“scratch plow”- blade that scratches the surfaces and breaks it up, but doesn’t turn the soil like a till.
“wheeled plow"- this turns the soil like a till on wheel (obviously no power (cuts down, cuts out, and turns all in one motion)- required 8 oxen, so people had to pull their resources and work together
purpose of the taxation system on the manor
to keep the serf frozen at a level of dependency-->not small enough to let the serf get ahead, but not big enough to let him go under
income tax; 10-15% of harvest must be paid to the lord
daily taxes on everyday items
Week Work
how much work the serfs must do in a week for just his lord-usually one day
Boon Work
serfs also may be asked to do some extra work and they get door prizes for coming
special piece of land that belongs the lord, but the serfs work once a week. He is taking away from their productivity on their own land, but still benefiting from their work
Urban II
pope, 1088-1099; said that Christians should go and take the holy land back from the Muslims
Council of Clermont (Nov. 18-28, 1095)
“Deus lo volt”
Seljuk Turks
converted Muslims-closed the holy land to pilgrims
Battle of Manzikert (Aug. 19, 1071)
muslims vs. celtic turks
-> Bezyntine Empire was over run
Culpa (guilt) and Poena (punishment)
“pilgrim”-this journey to the holy lands could help with your penance in the ultimate way
Crusader “States”
o Antioch
o Edessa
o Jerusalem
o Tripoli
The Renaissance
“Rebirth” (Renascence)
The people of this period rejected there just previous era and prefer the older era…rebirth
Francesco Petrarca, “Petrarch”(1304-1374)-
poet of Rome; See the world for its beauty and all the discoveries it has in store
St. Bernard
monk who gives example that spirituality was so consuming that they did not pay any attention to the world around them because they would wear a hood and focus in on their studies and thoughts
Changes with Renaissance
o Ad Fontes (1250) Humanism
o Allegory
o Gloss
Ad Fontes (1250)
“to the fountain” they want to get back to the good days of ancient Greece and Rome
man is the measure of all things; renewed in Renaissance
reading literature symbolically instead of literally
paraphrase of what you think something is trying to say
Amor Dei (Love in God)
Guilt Culture-it is not right/wrong by getting caught, but by what is morally right (middle ages)
Amor Sui(Love in self)
Shame Culture-you do things to please yourself and others, not God (Renaissance)
Anselm of Bec (1033-1109)
Cur Deus Homo? “Why did God become man?”; the body could be used to glorify God
if your not in charge of your failures, then something else must be at fault (take credit for success, but blame Lady Luck for your failures)
Why did the Germanic war leader often become a king?
war leader in tribal system had temporary power, but fighting was continuous and the temporary power became permanent
Why was the moot inefficient in time of war?
moot was inefficient during battle because war had more priority; kingship 1400 years
How was the Germanic religious sytem similiar to Christianity and what are the dangers in this?
Germans believed in Valhalla, father god, son of father god and he was killed on world tree->these were structural similarities, but this was dangerous because they probably would not genuinely convert, but relable
Why did Germanic tribes in general invade the Roman Empire?
Germans did not come to Roman empire to destroy it; they wanted to be roman
How were the ARabs able to conquer so much territory so quickly?
The Arabs had the best armies; cavalries were amazing; Arabs didn’t care if they died
What was the secret to their holding on to it for so long?
they held on to the land for so long because the Quran could not be translated and the people that want to be involved need to become Arab
What are the possible reasons for the beginning of the Viking Age?
Overpopulation and agriculture system was unable to feed everyone, political consolidation
How did Viking dragon ships make them a threat to Europe?
Drekker allowed them to get really close to shore, escape really fast, and go upstream
What did the Vikings do to Europe besides raid and plunder?
they settled and farmed; conquered
Why did Europe turn to manorial system in the middle ages?
protection; carrouka (wheeled plow) incentive
How is the serf different from a slave?
serf is un-free, but serfs are not property and can’t be shipped off and must be charged if they are to be beaten
Why did the manorial lord tax the serfs whenever they ground grain, brewed ale, tanned hides, etc.
serfs are the income for lord in banalities; they needed to keep the serfs frozen at a level of dependency
Why did feudalism begin?
Why was the feudal contract so heavily symbolic?
Since it isn’t written, it needs to be very public to make sure there can be no mistake in what takes place. The more symbolic and dramatic it is, the more people will be likely to remember
Why was liege lordship introduced and what ultimatiely defeated it?
even though one may have several lords, they choose one lord over the rest, but then some would have more than one and this defeated it
What did have to do pilgrims with the calling of the first crusade?
pilgrimage was part of penance
Why was the Pope indifferent to the crusading idea from 1071-1095?
the celjik turks were taking over the holy land and the byzantine empire called for help but they were ignored; pope was too busy fighting holy Roman emperor to worry bout the east
What had Urban II to gain by calling a Crusade?
he thought it would be a good leverage point against the west; it would gain him popularity; wanted to pacify Europe
How was allegory used int he medieveal academic system?
Allegories were read and interpreted by scholars, while the average readers would turn to glosses for their understanding
Why did Renaissance man replace God with Fortuna?
man became the be the drive of everyday accomplishments, but when failure came, fortuna (lady luck) was blamed
If the Germans war equipment was so unremarkable, how, according to Tactitus, did they win in battle?
The Germans mainly used spears called frameae that were easy to handle and could be used in short or long distnace battle. They also had a shield and maybe a helmet, but nothing extravagant. Their calvary was not spectacular either, but their infantry techniques won them battles. The Hundered from each district is chosen to make battle in wedge shaped formation.
What kind of behavior was expected from a follower of a German war chieftain?
they were not to surpass the chief in courage; to defend and protect him and give him credit for their good works;
What was the role of women among the early Germans?
Women were respected among the early Germans, and they encouraged their men in battle. Germans believed there resides an element of holiness in women and they seek their advice.
Why is Tacitus so fond of the Germans morality? What has this to say to Rome?
Tacitus was impressed with the loyalty between man and wife, which shows how Rome fails in this particular principle