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242 Cards in this Set

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A cut along the median plane (ventral to dorsal); cuts the body into left and right,
Sagittal is from "sagitta" (arrow). Relate this to being shot through with an arrow.
A cut along the frontal section; cuts the body into anterior and posterior sections.
Coronal is from "crown" and the cut goes from ear to ear--visualize a tiara.
A cut through the middle of the body; cuts body into superior and inferior portions.
When you get hit by a Trans(verse)Am, it tends to split you in half in the middle.
This body cavity includes the cranial and spinal cavities.
Dorsal cavity
Imagine having a dorsal fin coming out of your spine.
This body cavity includes the orbits and the nasal, oral, thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
Ventral cavity
A ventilator goes in your mouth, therefore ventral relates to anything on *this* side of your body.
Study of tissues
Someone who's sobbing "histerically" probably needs tissues.
Group of cells that act together to perform specific functions
What are the four fundamental tissues of the body?
Type of tissue that covers, lines and protects the body and its internal organs
Epithelial tissue
Epi = on
Thelium = the nipple
(the milk ducts are lined with epithelial tissue)
Type of tissue that is the framework of the body, providing support and structure for the organs
Connective tissue
Type of tissue that is composed of neurons and connective tissue cells that are called neuroglia.
Nerve tissue
Type of tissue that has the ability to contract and shorten; it is classified as voluntary or involuntary.
Muscle tissue
Type muscle tissue that is voluntary
skeletal muscle tissue
Types of muscle tissue that are involuntary
smooth muscle and cardiac muscle
Basic unit of life; building block of tissues and organs
_______ include enzymes that regulate all chemical reactions in the body.
Where does meiosis take place?
In the gonads
Meiosis is the "lessening process" The process of reducing the number of chromosomes from diploid (two copies of each chromosome) to haploid (a single copy of each). Necessary for the production of egg or sperm cells.
Mucous, serous, synovial and cutaneous are membranes primarily composed of _____________ tissue.
____________ is replaced by bone during embryonic development.
__________ is mainly found in joints, the thorax and various rigid tubules (e.g. trachea).
What is the body's largest organ?
Layer of skin that rests on the subcutaneous tissue that connects the skin to superficial muscles.
Name the layers of the epidermis from the outer layer to the inner layer
Stratum Corneum
Stratum Lucidum
Stratum Granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale
(Sometimes the Spinosum and Basale are referred to collectively as the Stratum Germinativum)
Stratum = Layer
What is the layer of epidermis where mitosis occurs
Stratum Basale (Stratum Germinativum)
Cells go through mitosis and "germinate" in the Germinativum
What is the protein pigment that protects against the sun's radiation?
What is the layer of skin composed of fibrous connective tissue with blood vessels, sensory nerve endings, hair follicles and glands?
What are the two types of sweat glands?
Eccrine means "to pour out"
Apocrine means "to secrete or seep out"
Which type of sweat gland regulates body temperature by releasing a watery secretion that evaporates from the surface of the skin?
Sweat pours from the eccrine glands
Which type of sweat gland is mainly found in the groin and armpit areas and contains a bit of cytoplasm in the secretion?
Oily sweat seeps from the apocrine glands
The ________ ________ skeleton is made up of the pelvic girdle (os coxae) and the lower extremities.
Lower appendicular
Something appended to something larger...
List the bones of the os coxae (pelvic girdle).
Ilium, Ischium, and pubis
os = bone
coxae = hip
Muscle contraction results from the sliding of what TWO filaments within the muscle cell or fiber?
Powered by ATP!
What are myofibrils made up of?
Sarco = Flesh
Meros = Part
What must be present for muscles to contract?
ATP and Calcium
Adenosine '5 Triphosphate (ATP) is continually recycled, and transports chemical energy within cells.
Muscles that work in coordination with primary movers are called ______.

A true synergist muscle is one that only neutralizes an undesired joint action, whereas a helping synergist is one that neutralizes an undesired action but also assists with the desired action.
Muscles that reduce the angle at a joint are called what?
Flexors in the upper arm include:
Biceps brachii
Muscles that increase the angle at a joint are called what?
Think of the extensor digitorum... Without it, you can't give the single-finger salute!
The _____ system is made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerves.
What are the main parts of a neuron?
Soma (cell body)
Dendrite ("hairs")
Some (rare) neuron types may lack an axon, others lack dendrites, but all have a soma. A soma may give rise to no more than one axon.
_______ of a neuron transmit impulses toward the body of the cell
A synapse typically occurs between the axon of one neuron (from) and the dendrite of another (toward the soma).
_______ of a neuron transmits impulses away from the cell body
Dendrites receive impulses from axons and transmit toward the soma
Name the two parts of the nervous system.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The division of the nervous system that consists of all the nerves that transmit information to and from the central nervous system is called?
What are the two divisions of the PNS?
Sensory (afferent) neurons
Motor (efferent) neurons
Neurons that transmit nerve impulses towards the CNS are called?
Afferent neurons (sensor neurons)
Neurons that carry impulses away from the CNS and toward the effector organs such as muscles, glands, and digestive organs are called?
Efferent neurons (motor neurons)
Name the major parts of the brain.
Medulla Oblongata
Name the part of the brain that is responsible for muscle coordination.
Name the part of the brain that is associated with movement and sensory input.
Movement takes thought--Cerebral activity takes place in the cerebrum
Name the part of the brain that controls many vital functions such as respiration and heart rate.
Medulla Oblongata
Frequently sung to the tune of "Hakuna Matata!"
How long is the spinal cord?
18 inches
The spine extends from the _________ ________ to _________
foramen magnum
L1 or L2
There are ____ pairs of spinal nerves that exit the spinal cord.
The reflexes in which nerve impulses travel through the spinal cord only (and don't reach the brain).
Simple reflexes
The impulses that enter the dorsal horns of the spinal cord.
Sensory impulses
Sensation is input
The impulses that leave through the ventral horns of the spinal cord.
Motion is the output (response) to sensation.
The system that assists the nervous system with homeostasis.
Endocrine system
The system that plays important roles in growth and sexual maturation
Endocrine system
The gland that governs the pituitary and is controlled by the feedback of hormones in the blood is the _______.
Chemical messengers that control growth, differentiation, and metabolism of specific target cells.
What are the two major groups of hormones?
The hormones that enter the target cells and have direct effect are _____.
Steroid hormones
Steroid hormones can be placed into which five (six on a good day...) classes, determined by the receptors to which they bind:
1. Glucocorticoids
2. Mineralocorticoids
3. Androgens
4. Estrogens
5. Pregestogens
(6.) Vitamin D
Steroid hormones help to control:
-Sexual maturation
-Immune functions
-Salt and water balance

Usually synthesized from cholesterol in the gonads and adrenal glands.
The hormones that bind to the cell wall, and act through a second messenger (e.g. hydrophilic molecules like cAMP, IP3, cGMP; hydrophobic molecules like diacylglycerol, phosphatidylinositols, or; gases like NO, CO)
Peptide (protein) hormones
Some may function as neurotransmitters (neuropeptides) while some neurotransmitters function as hormones when released into the blood
Hormones affect cell activity by altering the rate of ________.
Cell metabolism
What are the stages of hormonal signaling?
1. Biosynthesis (particular hormone is produced in a particular tissue)
2. Storage and secretion
3. Transport to target cells
4. Recognition of the hormone by the target cell
5. Relay and amplification of the hormonal signal, leading to cellular response
6. Hormone degradation
The cortisol released from the adrenal cortex reduces _____, raises _______, and inhibits the release of ________. It also decreases__________.
Body temperature
Blood glucose level (Gluconeogenesis in the liver)
Histamine (Immune system supression--reduces inflammatory response)
Bone formation
Cortisol: Hydrocortisone, is a glucocorticoid, produced in the adrenal cortex in response to stress and low blood glucocorticoid levels.
Chronically elevated cortisol levels result in proteolysis (breakdown of proteins to amino acids) and muscle wasting.
The pituitary gland is also known as the _______________.
Master gland.
The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus by the _______.
Infundibular stalk (or infundibulum)
Infundibulum = "Funnel"
The two major portions of the pituitary gland are:
Anterior Lobe (Adenohypophysis: pars distalis, pars tuberalis, and the pars intermedia)

Posterior Lobe (Neurohypophysis: pars nervosa and the infundibular stalk)
Hormones of the anterior lobe are:
Growth hormone (GH)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Prolactin (PRL)
GH: Promotes growth, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism
TSH: Secretion of thyroid hormones
ACTH: Secretion of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids
FSH: Growth of reproductive system
LH: Sex hormone production
PRL: Secretions of estrogens/progesterone; milk production.
Hormones of the posterior lobe are:
Vasopressin (ADH, VP, AVP)
Oxytocin (OT)
VP/ADH/AVP: Antidiuretic hormone, raises blood-pressure, induces male aggression.
OT: Stimulates uterine contractions and lactation.
Whole blood consists of ______% formed elements and ______% plasma. Plasma is made up of ____% water.
45% formed elements (blood cells)
55% plasma, which is:
95% water
Name the three formed elements of blood.
-Erythrocytes (RBC)
-Leukocytes (WBC)
-Thrombocytes (Platelets)
How do you distinguish leukocytes?
Nucleus (shape, size, position)
Size: Leukocytes range from 7 micrometers for small lymphocytes--the same size as an average thrombocyte--up to 60-68 micrometers for macrophages.

Nucleus: Present or absent, multi-lobed, bi-lobed, tri-lobed, eccentric, kidney-shaped.

Granules: Present or absent, size, Granule staining: Azurophilic? H&E stain?
True or False: Leukocytes are active in phagocytosis and antibody formation.
True or False: Platelets are not active in blood clotting.
Blood serves to transport ________ and ________ to body cells and to carry away ____________ and ___________.
Oxygen and nutrients
Carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes
The ____________ is the double- pump organ in the human body?
The heart sends blood to the lungs for _______. It comes back through the pulmonary circuit then through the ________ circuit.

Blood returning to the heart is received by the _________ _______.
Right atrium
After the blood is received by the left atria, it is pumped back into circulation by the ________.
Name the valve on the right side of the heart.
Name the valve on the left side of the heart.
Mitral or Bicuspid
__________ valves are found at the entrances of the pulmonary trunk and aorta.
Blood is supplied to the myocardium (heart muscle) by the __________.
Coronary arteries.
Blood drains from the myocardium directly into the right atrium through the __________.
Coronary sinus.
The hearts intrinsic beat is initiated by the _______.
Sinoatrial (SA) node.
Think: Sinus rhythm... Ese (SA) has rhythm!
Device that measures the heart's wave of electrical activity.
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
The period from the end of one ventricular contraction to the end of the next ventricular contraction
Cardiac cycle
The phase of atrial contraction
Atrial systole
The stage of ventral contraction
Ventral systole
The phase of atrial relaxation
Atrial diastole
The phase of ventral relaxation
Ventral Diastole
___________ carry oxygenated blood away from the heart, under pressure.
_________ carries "spent" blood towards the heart.
Microscopic vessels through which exchanges take place between the blood and cells of the body.
The smallest arteries are called?
As arteries get further away from the heart, they become _________.
Smaller and narrower
Large veins that empty into the right atrium of the heart
Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava.
The walls of the _________ are thick, elastic and carry blood under high pressure.
Vasoconstriction and vasodilation influence ________ ________ and blood distribution to the __________.
Blood pressure
Vasoconstriction and vasodilation result from the constriction and relaxation of _____ ______ in the arterial walls.
Smooth muscle
Walls of _________ are thinner and less elastic, and carry blood under lower pressure than arteries.
Name three mechanisms that help draw venous blood back to the heart.
Pressure of skeletal muscle on veins

Expansion of chest during inhalation

Valves in veins of legs keep blood
from succumbing to gravity
Name all the components of the respiratory system.
Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, diaphragm, muscles around the ribs, and alveoli.
What part of the brain controls respiration?
Medulla oblongata
The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and blood through alveoli is called what?
External respiration
The exchange of gases between blood and body cells is called what?
Internal respiration
The upper respiratory tubules are lined with ________ to keep dirt and debris from entering the lungs.
The smoker's song: "Oh say Cilia... You're breaking my heart...You're shaking my confidence daily!"
The contraction of the diaphragm to enlarge the chest cavity and draw air into the lungs is __________.
The process during which the lungs recoil as the respiratory muscles relax and the thorax decreases in size is called ____________.
Apocrine glands secretions trap debris and bacteria causing ______.
Ape-ocrine glands make you smell like a monkey!
Glands that release sebum through the hair follicles that lubricates the skin and prevents drying are ____________ glands.
Oil is produced by ______ secretion.
Bones are classified by _______.
What kind of bone has an irregular epiphysis at each end, is composed mainly of spongy bone, and a shaft (diaphysis) composed of compact bone?
Long bone.
Cells that form compact bone are called __________.
The axial skeleton consists of _____ bones of the skull.
There are _______ _______ and ______ ______ in the categorized axial skeleton.
14 facial
14 cranium
List the 14 facial bones of the axial skeleton.
2 nasal, 2 maxillary, 2 zygomatic, 1 mandibular, 2 palatine, 1 vomer, 2 lacrimal, 2 inferior nasal conchae.
List the 14 cranial bones of the axial skeleton.
occipital, frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, and the ossicles of each ear (mallus, incus, stapes)
The axial skeleton also holds ___ bones of the vertebral column.
How many cervical vertebrae are there in the human body?
How many thoracic vertebrae are there in the human body?
How many lumbar vertebrae are there in the human body?
How many sacral vertebrae are there in the human body?
What is another name for the tailbone?
Coccygeal bone
The part of the skeleton that houses girdles and limbs.
appendicular skeleton
The pectoral/shoulder girdle, clavicle, scapula, and upper extremity are housed in the _______ ______ skeleton.
Upper appendicular
Most of the oxygen carried in the blood is bound to ________ in red blood cells.
regulator of blood pH
carbon dioxide
Name the accessory organs of the digestive system.
salivary glands
Name the parts of the alimentary canal
mouth, pharynx, esophagus,
stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus
mechanical process of breaking down food with teeth and tongue
substance that lubricates and dilutes chewed food.
enzyme in saliva that starts the digestive process of complex carbs.
A ball of food
narrow tube leading from the pharynx to the stomach
Name the four main layers of the digestive tract (inner to outer).
mucous membrane
submucous layer
muscular layer
serous layer
After food enters the stomach, gastric glands secrete _______ ____ that breaks down food.
hydrochloric acid
The stomach churns and mixes the bolus, turning it into a soupy substance called _________.
The stomach regulates the movement of food into the ________ ________.
small intestine
Where does digestion and absorption of food occur?
small intestine
Digestion in the small intestine is acted on by enzymes from _______ and ________ and by bile from the ______.
small intestine and pancreas
The _____ contributes water to dilute chyme and bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid from the stomach.
Name the regions of the small intestine
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
Nutrients are absorbed through the wall of the ______________.
small intestine.
The amino acids and simple sugars derived from proteins and the carbohydrates are absorbed directly into the _______.
Most fats are absorbed into the lymph by the ________.
After fats are absorbed and added to the bloodstream, all nutrients enter the ________ _______ _______ to be routed to the _______ for decontamination.
hepatic portal vein
Small finger like projections that greatly increase surface area of the intestinal wall.
Digestive organ that reabsorbs water as well as stores and eliminates undigested food
large intestine
abundant bacteria of the large intestine
intestinal flora
Name the parts of the large intestine
ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus, cecum and appendix
The opening for defecation is called the ______.
Name the parts of the urinary system.
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.
The tubes that transport urine to the urinary bladder
The place where urine is stored in a human body
urinary bladder
How urine exits the body
Functional units of the kidneys
Nephrons are small coiled tubules that filter waste material out of the blood brought to the kidney by the _______.
renal artery.
The filtration process occurs through the _______ in the Bowman's capsule of the nephron.
Filtration of the blood occurs under the force of _______ _________.
blood pressure
As the glomerular filtrate passes through the nephron, components needed by the body leave the nephron by ______ and re-enter the blood.
Water is reabsorbed at the _______ of the nephron.
What is the final product of the nephrons?
Two functions of the reproductive system are the production of ______ and the production of _______.
Functions of the sex organs are under control by the ______ hormones.
Reproductive activity is _______ in women and _______ in men.
Where do spermatozoa develop?
seminiferous tubules of testes
The interstitial cells between the seminiferous tubules produce __________.
Hormone that influences sperm cell development, produces body hair and deep voice is called?
Where are sperm stored
Pathway for sperm during ejaculation
vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra.
Glands that produce semen
seminal vesicles, prostate gland, Cowpers gland
Hormones that control testicular activity
FSH and LH
Hormone that stimulates sperm production
Hormone that stimulates interstitial cells to produce testosterone
_________ produced by the follicle initiates the preparation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy.
At day ___ of the cycle, LH is released from the _______ gland, which stimulates ovulation and the coversion of the follicle to the ________ ________.
corpus luteum
What hormone is secreted by the corpus luteum
After ovulation, the egg is swept into the _________ ____________.
fallopian tube
If fertilization occurs, it occurs while the egg is in the ________.
A fertilized egg is also known as a _______.
In the uterus, the developing embryo is nourished by the ________, which is formed by materials and embryonic tissues.
Cavity composed of the abdomen and pelvis.
abdominopelvic cavity.
movement of nutrients from the digestive tube into the bloodstream
Protein that makes up the I band of the sarcomere.
Building blocks of proteins
amino acids
special proteins that protect the body from foreign substances
Adenosine triphosphate (the energy of the cell)
Upper chambers of the heart
Product of the liver that emulsifies fat.
Tissue made up of cells and fibers that connect and support
gland of the ear that produces earwax
ceruminous gland
bodies within the nucleus made of DNA and proteins called histones.
nervous system made up of the brain and spinal cord
Domed shaped breathing muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities
Movement of materials from high concentration to lower concentration
Crescent shaped projection of gray matter within the spinal cord where sensory neurons enter the spinal cord.
dorsal horn
prenatal development time between zygote and fetus stages
inner lining of the uterus
function protein, names usually end in -ase
simple sugars found in certain foods, especially fruits
physiologic steady state that is naturally maintained by the body
portion of the brain that regulates body temperature, sleep, and appetite.
articulates between adjoining bones
Tough, fibrous, insoluble protein forming the primary component of skin, hair, nails and tooth enamel
dead cells of the epidermis
keratinized epithelium
found within the villi of the intestinal wall, where fat nutrients are absorbed
lacteal vessel
tissue connecting bone to bone
Imaginary line dividing the body into left and right portions
Median plane
space within the thoracic cavity that houses all the organs of the chest except the lungs
thin sheets of tissue cells that line the body openings or canals that open to the outside of the body.
mucous membrane
protein that makes up nearly half of the proteins in muscle cells
mouth, a.k.a. buccal cavity
oral cavity
cavities surrounding the eyes
structurally discrete component of a cell that performs a specific function
measurement associated with acids and bases
engulfing of materials by certain cells of the body
liquid portion of the blood
blood flow through a network of vessels between the heart and the lungs for the oxygenation of blood and removal of carbon dioxide.
pulmonary circulation
organelle of the cell where protein synthesis takes place
Imaginary line running from the front to back that divides the body into left and right sections
saggital plane
organelle of the muscle fiber that stores calcium
sarcoplasmic reticulum
What is the layer of tissue under the dermis that contains adipose tissue?
Subcutaneous tissue
Sweat glands are also known as what?
sudiferous glands
General blood circulation to the body, excluding the lungs.
systemic circulation
Another name for chest cavity.
Thoracic cavity
imaginary line that divides the body into top and bottom portions
transverse plane
narrowing of the diameter of a blood vessel
widening of the diameter of a blood vessel
serous membrane surrounding the heart
actively mitotic layer of the epidermis
stratum germinativum
What is the total number of phalanges on a normal human body?
The flexor carpi ulnaris is located where?
In the wrist.
The largest gland in the human body
The largest internal organ in the body
Where is melanin produced in the epidermis?
Stratum Basale
What are sarcomeres primarily comprised of?
Actin & Myosin
5 primary types of leukocyte
(Bonus for two "secondary" types!)
(Not Everyone Believes Like Me: Many Do)

(-Dendritic cells)