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27 Cards in this Set

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Breast cancer gene determinant of management plan

HER2 oncogene

Dx HER2 oncogene

FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) or IHC (immunohistochemical) staining

Sx spherocytosis

Increased MCHC, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, splenomegaly, usu in Northern European pt

Tx spherocytosis

Folate

Microscopy for acquired sideroblastic anemia

"Dimorphic" (hypochromic and normochromic) RBC population

Tx sideroblastic anemia

Pyridoxine

Pathophys idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

IgG autoantibodies against platelet membrane glycoproteins → increased platelet destruction and inhibition of megakaryocyte platelet production

Labs von Willebrand disease

↑ PT, PTT, normal platelet counts

Dx autoimmune hemolytic anemia

Normocytic anemia, jaundice, ↑ indirect bilirubin, ↑ LDH, and ↓ serum haptoglobin

Tx warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia

High-dose glucocorticoids (eg prednisone)

Sx breast fibrocystic dz

Rubbery, firm, mobile, and painful mass in a young pt who experiences more tenderness during her period

Red flags for fibrocystic disease (breast mass)

Aspirated fluid is bloody or foul-smelling

Pathophys febrile nonhemolytic transfusion rxn

Cytokine accumulation during blood storage

Sx febrile nonhemolytic tranfusion rxn

1-6 h: Fever & chills

Pathophys acute hemolytic transfusion rxn

ABO incompatability

Sx acute hemolytic transfusion rxn

0-1 h: fever, flank pain, hemoglobinuria, renal failure, DIC

Pathophys delayed hemolytic transfusion rxn

Minor RBC cell Ag causes rxn

Sx delayed hemolytic transfusion rxn

2-10 d: mild fever, hemolytic anemia

Pathophys anaphylactic tranfusion rxn

Recipient anti-IgA Abs

Sx anaphylactic tranfusion rxn

sec-min: Shock, angioedema/urticaria, respiratory distress

Pathophys urticarial/allergic tranfusion rxn

Recipient IgE Ab & mast cell activation

Pathophys transfusion-related acute lung injury

Donor anti-leukocyte Abs

Sx transfusion-related acute lung injury

0-6h: respiratory distress, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema

MC cancer associated with Lynch II syndrome (HNPCC cancer family syndrome)

Endometrial carcinoma

Tx HIT

Direct thrombin inhibitor (eg argatroban) or fondaparinux

Sx milk-alkali syndrome

Hypercalemia, renal insufficiency (look at Cr), metabolic alkalosis

Sx Trousseau's syndrome

Superficial venous thrombosis at unusual sites (eg arm, chest area)