Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/75

Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was the aim of this study?
To test whether self produced movements related to changes in stimulation are essential for the development of certain perceptions
What was the sample of this study?
Ten pairs of kittens were used; each pair from a different litter
-In each pair there was one ‘active’ (A) and one ‘passive’ (P).
Before the experiment studied, how were the kitten reared?
None of them received light before the experiment, as they were all reared in darkness from birth.
Why were the kittens reared in the darkness before the experiment began?
The point of of that was so both kittens were made to learn to see the world receiving the same visual stimulation. The difference was that the one moved actively, the other was moved passively.
The way kittens were treated was?
Two selected kittens spent half of the day in daylight (moving in the carousel) and the second half were spent in darkness with their mother
What did the rest of kittens do who weren't chosen to be in the carousel?
The rest of the kittens spent every day in darkness with their mother.
What was the research method of this study?
Lab experiment
The two kittens that were taken from the litter were labeled as either?
Kitten A or Kitten B
What happened to Kitten A when it was placed in the carousel?
It was attached to a vest that allowed it to move freely around the carousel in any direction it wanted
What happened to Kitten B when it placed in the carousel?
It was placed in a basket and was not allowed to move (by itself) around it
What happened when Kitten A moved around the carousel?
It pulled Kitten B around by its own force
What did the carousel look like?
-The carousel was housed in a cylinder with black, white and metal-colored vertical strips on the walls inside.
-The center of the roundabout, which was also striped, prevented the kittens from seeing each other.
How many hours per day were the kitten in apparatus (carousel)?
3 hours
How many weeks were the kitten in apparatus (carousel)?
6 weeks
What did the researchers do to the kittens after the 6-week period?
The researchers took both kittens and tested them to test their natural reflexes
How many tests were there to test the kittens natural reflexes?
6
What were the 6 names of the tests the researchers used to the kittens natural reflexes after the 6-week period was over?
•Visually guided paw placement
•Avoidance of visual cliff
•Blink to an approaching object
•Visual pursuit of a moving objec
•Pupillary reflex to light
•Tactual placing response
What happened in the Visually Guided Paw Placement Test?
The kitten was held by the experimenter with its head and forelegs free and was carried down to the edge of the table.
A kitten with normal Visually Guided Paw Placement would do what?
A kitten with normal visual experience extends its paws ready to make contact with the surface
What happened in the Avoidance of a Visual Cliff Test?
The kitten was placed on the central ‘bridge’ from which it can stay still or walk onto either the ‘shallow’ or ‘deep’ side.
What would a normal kitten do in the Avoidance of a Visual Cliff Test?
A kitten with normal visual experience avoids the ‘deep’ side
What happened in the Blink to an Approaching Object Test?
The kitten was held still in a standing position and the experimenter brought his hand quickly towards the kitten’s face (stopping just in front of it)
What would a normal kitten do in the Blink to an Approaching Object Test?
A kitten with normal visual experience blinks
What kind of test was the Visually Guided Paw Placement
Tests the capacity to make Visual-Spatial Discrimination
What kind of test was the Avoidance of a Visual Cliff Test?
Tests the capacity to make Visual-Spatial Discrimination
What kind of test was the Blink to an Approaching Object Test?
Tests the capacity to make Visual-Spatial Discrimination
Which tests were used to test the capacity to make Visual-Spatial Discriminations?
•Visually guided paw placement
•Avoidance of visual cliff
•Blink to an approaching object
What was the Visual Pursuit of a Moving Object Test?
The kitten was shown the experimenter’s hand moving slowly in front of it. The movement of the kitten’s eyes was recorded.
What does a normal kitten do in a Visual Pursuit of a Moving Object Test?
A kitten with normal visual experience follows the movement with its eyes
What was the Pupillary Reflex to Light Test?
A flashlight beam was moved across the eye and the change in pupil size was noted.
What does a normal kitten do in a Pupillary Reflex to Light Test?
The pupil of a kitten with normal visual experience shrinks in response.
What was the Tactual Placing Response Test?
The kitten was held as in the paw placement test but its front paws were put against the vertical surface of the table.
What does a normal kitten do in a Tactual Placing Response Test?
A kitten with normal visual experience responds by moving its paws to the horizontal surface.
What kind of test was the Visual Pursuit of a Moving Object Test?
Test of Visual Receptors and their Responses
What kind of test was the Pupillary Reflex to Light Test?
Test of Visual Receptors and their Responses
What kind of test was the Tactual Placing Response Test?
Test of Visual Receptors and their Responses
What were the names of the test used to test the Visual Receptors and their Responses
•Visual pursuit of a moving object
•Pupillary reflex to light
•Tactual placing response
What kind of data was collected from these tests? (Qualitative)
-All of the kittens had normal blink responses
-All of the kittens had normal responses to the visual cliff but the passive kittens crossed to the shallow side at random
-All of the active kittens had normal visually guided paw placement but none of the passive kittens did
What were the blink responses of the kittens?
The blink responses of these kittens were normal
How did Active kittens ('A') respond to the Visual Cliff Test?
All of the Active Kittens ('A') had normal responses
How did the Passive kittens ('P') respond to the Visual Cliff Test?
All of the Passive kittens ('P') were crossing to the shallow or deep side at random.
All of the Active kittens ('A') developed a normal visually- guided paw placement response when they had spent how much time in the apparatus? (Results)
63 hours (21 sessions)
Did the Passive kittens ('P') acquire a normal visually- guided paw placement response? (Results)
No
The findings of this study fit what idea? (Results)
The findings of this study fitted the idea that self-produced movement and concurrent visual feedback are essential for the development of visually-guided behavior.
How many hours did the Passive kittens ('P') spend freely in a lighted before they were retested? (Results)
48 hours
What were the results of the Passive kittens ('P') being retested after spending 48 hours freely in a lighted room? (Results)
-They displayed normal visually-guided paw-placement and performed all descents to the shallow side of the visual cliff
-However, they were never normal
What were the results of the Visually Guided Paw Placement Test have the Passive kittens ('P') were retested? (Results)
They displayed normal visually-guided paw-placement and performed all descents to the shallow side of the visual cliff. BUT they were never normal
Self-actuated movement is necessary in order to develop what? (Conclusion)
The normal visual perception with depth
Our movement in the world gives the dimension of what? (Conclusion)
Depth to mere visual sensations
Movement is the key to understanding what? (Conclusion)
The vision
Some parts of perception are learned and some are what? (Conclusion)
Some parts of perception are learned and some are innate
The more complex parts of perception appear to be what? (Conclusion)
The ones that are learned but there is no certainty as to which are innate and which rely on experience
What is the control of this study? (Strength)
The control is high
The experience of the kittens was what? (Strength)
The experience of the kittens was matched
How many things were matched in the experience of the kittens?
6
What were the 6 matched things in the experience of the kittens?
-Speed of travel
-Direction of travel
-Distance traveled
-Height from the floor
-Contact with the floor
-The view of the apparatus
The matching of the experience shows what?
That the differences were due to the kittens visual deficits that were due to the fact that its movements were not self-actuated.
What were the kittens visual deficits due from?
They were due to the fact that its movements were not self-actuated.
This study may have distorted what? (Weakness)
The kittens' inborn abilities rather than proved that the abilities were learned
What is wrong with generalizing the findings of this study? (Weakness)
Can this generalize to all mammals?
Even people?
Why does this study have low ecological validity? (Weakness)
The ecological validity is hurt by the use of a laboratory. Also, it is studied on animals (kittens) whereas humans are different.
What are the ethical problems of this study? (Weakness)
They are studying animals and harmed some of the kittens. They stated that the kittens were never normal.
What is Sensation?
Sensation is the process of bringing information from the outside world into the body and to the brain.
What is Perception?
Perception can be defined as the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the information brought to the brain by the senses.
Process of sensing our environment through touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell requires what? (Sensation)
Sensory receptors
What is the process of bringing information from the outside world into the body and to the brain?
Sensation
What is the process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting the information brought to the brain by the sense?
Perception
The debate between nature and nurture is the basis of most research into the development of what?
The debate between nature and nurture is the basis of most research into the development of PERCEPTION
What 5 ways have psychologists attempted to study the Nature vs Nurture debate?
-by studying human babies, or neonates
-by studying cataract patients
-by studying animals
-by studying different cultures
-by studying adaptation
Those who support the Nurture view point believe what?
That perceptual abilities have to be learned and adapted to.
Top down theories of processing: also known as "LARGE CHUNK" processing, states that we form what? (Nurture)
Perceptions of our environment by starting with the larger concepts and then working our way down to the finer details of that concept
Those who support the Nature view point believe what?
Humans are born with all their perceptual functions ready to be used
Top down theories of processing: also known as "LARGE CHUNK" processing, states that we form what? (Nature)
Perceptions of our environment by starting with the larger concepts and then working our way down to the finer details of that concept
Who were the researchers of this study?
Held & Hein (1963)
What perspective of Psychology does this study lie in?
Cognitive