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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
includes the bones in your head, your breastbone, your ribs, and the bones in your backbone
Axial Skeleton
all the other bones in your body
Appendicular Skeleton
the thick, hard part of the skull that encloses the brain and protects it
the 33 bones that make up the spinal column
tough, supportive tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone that separates individual vertebrae from each other
the point at which two bones come together
strong, fibrous bands that hold bones together at movable joints and prevent them from popping apart
the fluid secreted by membranes around a joint that lubricates the joint and reduces wear on the bones
Synovial Fluid
the tough membrane that covers bones and contains cells that form new bone during growth and repair
the soft tissue that fills the spaces inside bones
the process by which cartilage is replaced by bone
a break in a bone
when the ends of the bones are forced out of their normal positions in a joint
consists of overstretched or torn ligaments or tendons
a serious damage to the cartilage that covers the ends of bones in a joint
Torn Cartilage
a painful irritation of a bursa (a fluid-filled sac that cushions certain joints and tendons)
when the joints become painful and swollen
an abnormal curvature of the spine
a condition in which bones become weak and break easily
voluntary muscle attached to the bones of the skeleton
Skeletal Muscle
thick strands of connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones
involuntary muscle that works automatically to control movements inside the body such as those involved in breathing and digestion
Smooth Muscle
involuntary muscle found only in the heart
Cardiac Muscle
the slight, constant contraction of a muscle that is due to the contraction of some of its fibers
Muscle Tone
a waste product that sometimes accumulates in muscles after very intense exercise
Lactic Acid
a painful irritation of a tendon
a condition in which the muscles gradually become weaker and weaker because the muscle fibers are slowly destroyed
Muscular Dystrophy
the basic cell of the nervous system
short, branching fibers that carry nerve impulses toward the cell body
long, thin fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body
a fatty material that insulates the axon and increases the speed at which an impulse travels
the space between an axon and the structure with which the neuron communicates
pick up information about your external and internal environment from your sense organs and your body
Sensory Neurons
send impulses to your muscles and glands, causing them to react
Motor Neurons
pass impulses from one neuron to another and are located only in the brain and spinal cord
the brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System
all the nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body
Peripheral Nervous System
a moist, spongy organ that is made of billions of neurons that control almost everything you do and experience
three layers of membranes that cover the brain and give it further protection
a liquid found between the middle and inner meninges and in certain spaces within the brain and spinal cord
Cerebrospinal Fluid
large upper region of the brain
coordinates the contraction of your muscles
the area of the brain below the cerebellum at the base of the skull, it controls heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure
a relay station or the senses, receiving impulses from sense organs and modifying them before they reach the cerebrum
regulates body temperature, sleep, water balance, and blood pressure
nerve tissue that extends from the brain down the back to just below the ribs
Spinal Cord
12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the brain
Cranial Nerves
31 pairs of nerves that branch off from the spinal cord, passing through openings in the vertebrae
Spinal Nerves
responsible for actions that you can control
Somatic Nervous System
regulates actions that happen automatically, without your thinking about them; heartbeat/breathing rate/digestion
Automatic Nervous System
an automatic response of the nervous system to the environment
a short loss of consciousness following a severe bump to the head, during which the soft brain tissue comes into contact with the skull
a prolonged period of deep unconsciousness
the loss of the ability to move some part of the body
paralysis of the body from the neck down, including the arms and legs
paralysis of the lower body and legs, usually the effect of an injuring to the lower part of the spinal cord
an inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord
an infection of the central nervous system that, if left untreated, is fatal
especially severe headaches that usually last a long time
Migraine Headaches
nervous system damage that occurs before, during, or shortly after a birth
Cerebral Palsy
a condition caused when the impulses produced by the brain become disturbed
the result of a sudden storm of brain activity
a condition in which patches of myelin are slowly destroyed
Multiple Sclerosis