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144 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)

Diseases of the heart and blood vessels

Ideal Cardiovascular Health (ICH)

Absence of clinical indicators of CVD, presence of certain behavioral and health factor metrics

Cardiovascular system

Organ system, consisting of the heart and blood vessels that transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, metabolic wastes, and enzymes throughout the body


Heart's 2 upper chambers, receives blood


Heart's 2 lower chambers, pumps blood through the vessels


Vessels that carry blood away from the heart to other regions of the body


Branches of the arteries


Minute blood vessels that branch out from the arterioles and venules with thin walls with exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products among body cells


Vessels that transport waste and carry blood back to the heart from other regions of the body


Branches of the veins

Sinoatrial node (SA node)

Cluster of electric pulse-generating cells that serves as a natural pacemaker for the heart

Sudden cardiac death

Death that occurs as a result of abrupt profound loss of heart function


Sustained elevated blood pressure

Systolic blood pressure

Upper number in the fraction that measures blood pressure

Indicates pressure on the walls of the arteries when the heart contracts

Diastolic blood pressure

Lower number in the fraction that measures blood pressure

Indicates pressure on the walls of the arteries during relaxation


Blood pressure is above normal but not yet in the hypertensive range


Condition characterized by deposits of fatty substances on the inner lining of the artery


Buildup of deposits in the arteries

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Narrowing or blockage of coronary arteries, usually caused by atherosclerotic plaque buildup


Reduced oxygen supply to a body part or organ

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

Atherosclerosis occurring in the feet, calves, or legs or arms

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

Narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood to the heart

Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Heart Attack

Blockage or normal blood supply to an area in the heart

Coronary Thrombosis

A blood clot occurring in a coronary artery


A blood clot attached to the blood vessel's wall


Blood clot that becomes dislodged from a blood vessel wall and moves through the circulatory system

Collateral circulation

Adaptation of the heart to partial damage by rerouting needed blood through unused or underused blood vessels while the damaged heart muscle heals

Stroke/cerebrovascular accident

Occurs when the brain is damaged by disrupted blood supply


Weakened blood vessel that may bulge under pressure and burst

Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

Brief interruption of the blood supply to the brain that causes only temporary impairment, indicator of impending stroke

Angina pectoris

Chest pain occurring as a result of reduced oxygen flow to the heart


Irregularity in heartbeat


Sporadic pattern of heartbeat resulting in inefficiency in moving blood through the system

(Congestive) Heart Failure

Abnormal cardiovascular condition that reflects impaired cardiac pumping and blood flow


Damage to heart muscle due to enlargement, atrophy, or rigidity that results in decreased heart function

Congenital Cardiovascular Defect

Cardiovascular problem present at birth

Rheumatic heart disease

A heart disease caused by untreated streptococcal infection of the throat

Cardiometabolic Risks

Physical and biochemical changes that are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS)

Group of metabolic diseases occurring together to increase risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes

Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL)

Compounds that facilitate transport of cholesterol in the blood to the body's cells and cause the cholesterol to build up in artery walls

High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)

Compounds that facilitate the transport of cholesterol in the blood to the liver for metabolism and elimination from the body


Most common form of lipid in the body, excess calories are converted into triglycerides and stored as body fat

Plant sterols

Essential components of plant membranes that appear to help lower cholesterol levels

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Record of the electrical activity of the heart, may be measured during a stress test


Technique for examining blockage in arteries or veins supplying the heart, lungs, head and neck, or limbs, using a small camera on a catheter and dye passed through key vessels

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Precise diagnostic technique to identify heart damage, defects, and evaluation of blood vessel problems through use of powerful magnetic, radiation free imaging

Ultrafast Computed Tornography (CT)

New, fast form of heart x-ray used to evaluate bypass grafts, diagnose levels of calcium in heart vessels or plaque formation and heart attack risk

Coronary bypass surgery

Blood vessel is taken from another part of the body is implanted to bypass a clogged coronary artery


Catheter with a balloon at the tip is inserted into a clogged artery, balloon is inflated to flatten fatty deposits against artery walls, stent is inserted to keep the artery open


Mesh-like tube inserted to prop open the artery


Injection of agent to dissolve clots and restore blood flow

T/F More women than men die from heart disease and stroke


Cardiovascular Disease facts

Under 40 - 9-15% have some form of CVD

40+ 40% have some form of CVD

CVD is America's biggest killer

Can begin in childhood

CVD Risk factors (uncontrollable)


Age (older than 65)

Gender (men are at greater risk until age 60, women are at greater risk after menopause)

Race (African americans have highest risk)

Why high blood pressure is called the silent killer

Can be undetected unless monitored priodically

Affects 1 out of 3 people, cause is unknown

3x more likely to develop coronary artery disease, 4x more likely to have a stroke

Normal blood pressure readings


How to increase HDL/Lower LDL

increase: continuous aerobic exercise

lower: dietary modifications, certain medication

Physical activity stats

30-40% risk reduction for CVD

Biggest risk factor for sudden cardiac death


Nicotine's effect on the body

Causes vasoconstriction

Increases blood pressure and heart rate

Obesity's effect on the body

Increase strain on heart

Contribute to high blood pressure and high cholesterol

Lead to type 3 diabetes

Limit activity

Other CVD Risk factors




Stroke stats

5th leading cause of death in the US

1 in 20 deaths

Stroke warning signs

Numbness or weakness on one side of the body

Confusion, trouble speaking

Trouble seeing

Trouble walking, dizziness

Sudden severe headaches

Stroke treatment

Clot reducing medicines

Surgical procedures to repair damaged blood vessel

Stroke recurrance

1 of 4 stroke survivors has another stroke within 5 years


Process by which cancer spreads from one area to a different area


New growth of tissue that results from uncontrolled, abnormal cellular development and serves no physiological function


Neoplasmic mass that grows more rapidly than surrounding tissue


Removal and examination of a tissue sample to determine if cancer is present


Cancer causing agents


Suspected cancer causing genes present on chromosomes

Malignant melanoma

Virulent cancer of the melanocytes (pigment producing cells) of the skin

Pap test

Procedure in which cells taken from the cervical region are examined for abnormal cellular activity

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Uses magnetic fields, radio waves, and computers to generate an image of internal body tissues without radiation

Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) Scan

Scan by a machine that uses radiation to view internal organs not normally visible in x-rays

Stereotactic Radiosurgery/Gamma Knife Surgery

Type of radiation therapy that can be used to zap tumors


Use of radiation to kill cancerous cells


Use of drugs to kill cancerous cells

Cancer facts

Cancer mortality rates are declining slowly

Men have a greater risk than women for cancer

Types of cancers

Sarcomas - bone, cartilage, muscle

Lymphomas - lymphatic tissue

Carcinomas - epithelial tissue

Leukemias - blood or bone marrow


Cell organized cell death

How cancer cells get the nutrients to sustain limitless growth

Connecting to the circulatory system

What percent of cancers are hereditary


Stages of cancer

0 - abnormal cells remain only in the place they originated

I-IV - High numbers means larger tumor size/spread of cancer

+ - cancer has spread to other organs

Cause of DNA mutations

Viruses - Chronic Hepatitis B, C, and liver cancer, HPV

Environment - Asbestos, Nickel, chemicals, radiation

Lifestyle - Tobacco, alcohol, nutrition, stress, sedentary behavior

Heredity - Can't be modified

Number 1 cause of cancer death for men and women

Lung Cancer

Symptoms - cough, bloody sputum, chest pain

Most common cancer in women

Breast cancer

Easily treatable if caught early

Symptoms - lump, thickening, dimpling, skin irritation, tenderness

Exercise reduces risk

Colon/Rectal Cancers

3rd most common in incidence and mortality

Treatable if caught early

Symptoms - rectal bleeding, bloody stool

Exercise, plant diet, calcium reduces risk

One of the most curable cancers

Testicular cancer


One of the fastest growing cancers

Cause is unknown, weakened immune system suspected

Malignant melanoma

Deadliest form of skin cancer

ABCD rule

To detect melanoma:


Border irregularity



Sexual Violence

Any unwanted sexual attention, contact, or activity without consent

Sexual violence stats

20-25% of women are victims of rape during college

50% of women knew someone who has been raped

90% of sexual violence is committed by someone they know in the privacy of a residence

How to be an active bystander

Stand, Speak, Act

Notice the event

Interpret the incident as a problem

Assume personal responsibility

Attempt to Help

4 D's






Aggressive behaviors that can produce injuries and result in death

Intentional Injuries

Injury, death, or psychological harm inflicted with the intent to harm

Unintentional Injuries

Injury, death, or psychological harm caused without premeditation

Primary Aggression

Goal directed, hostile self assertion that is destructive in nature

Reactive Aggression

Hostile emotional reaction brought about by frustrating life experiences

Interpersonal Violence

Violence inflicted against one individual by another or by a small group of others

Hate crime

Crime targeted against a particular societal group and motivated by bias against the group


Violence directed at persons affiliated with a particular ethnic group


A negative evaluation of an entire group of people that is based on wrong ideas about the group


Actions that deny equal treatment to a group often based on prejudices

Domestic Violence

Use of force to control another person in the home environment

Intimate partner violence (IPV)

Physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse

Child maltreatment

Any act of commission or omission by a parent or caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child

Child abuse

Deliberate intentional words or actions that cause harm, or threat of harm to a child


Failure to provide a child's basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, and medical care

Sexual assault

Any act in which one person is sexually intimate with another without that person's consent


Sexual penetration without the victim's consent

Aggravated rape

Rape that involved one or multiple attackers, strangers, weapons, or physical beatings

Simple rape

Rape by one person, usually known to the victim, that does not involve physical beating or weapons

Sexual harrassment

Form of unwanted sexual attention related to any condition of employment, education, or performance evaluation


Willful, repeated, and malicious following, harassing, or threatening of another person

Collective violence

Violence perpetrated by groups against other groups


Unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, population

The number that measures the pressure on the artery walls when the heart contracts is known as _______

systolic pressure

A device that is surgically implanted to stimulate or regulate the contractions of the heart muscle is a __________.


The condition in which the inner lining of the arterial walls thicken because of the buildup of fatty deposits, which can eventually block blood flow, is called __________.


An abnormally rapid heart rate is known as __________, an abnormally slow heart rate is known as __________

tachycardia (fast), bradycardia (slow)

A heart that beats in a quivering, sporadic manner is said to be experiencing __________.


T/F? Unresolved streptococcal infection of the throat can lead to rheumatic heart disease.


The term for genes suspected to be cancer-causing is __________.


The process of malignant cancer cells spreading from one area of the body to another is __________.


Hodgkin’s disease is a type of cancer classified as a __________.


The two most commonly diagnosed cancers among males in the United States today are __________.

Skin cancer, prostate cancer

An abnormal new growth of tissue


A neoplasmic mass that grows faster than surrounding tissue


the removal and examination of a tissue sample to determine if cancer is present


T/F? A numerical system with five stages is used to classify how far cancer has advanced within the body.


T/F? Alcohol use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States.


T/F? Cancers of the bone and connective tissues are known as carcinomas.


Aggressive behaviors that result in the injury or death of victims constitute __________.


Unlawful force or violence used against people or property to advance political or social objectives is __________.


Some victims of elder abuse are unaware of the abuse or of the need to ask for help because of __________.


How many men in the United States have been victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) at some time in their lives?

1 in 10

failure to provide a child's basic needs, such as food, clothing, shelter, and medical care

child neglect

deliberate, intentional words or actions that cause harm or threat of harm to a child

child abuse

acts of commission or omission by a parent or caregiver that result in harm or threat of harm to a child

child maltreatment

What percentage of cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use?