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44 Cards in this Set

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B lymphocytes

Come from bone marrow

Thymus

Maturation of immune cells

Bone marrow

Origination of all immune cells

T lymphocytes

Recognize hidden organisms in cells. T helper cells regulate all immune cells

Macrophages

Initiative immune response

Symptoms of chronic fatigue

New fatigue, unexplained, not alleviated by rest

Treatment for fibromyalgia

Education, support, stress management, nutrition, exercise, behavior therapy, analgestic agents, antioxidant, lyrica, and NSAIDs. Physical therapist can do me a massage or aquatic therapy

Symptoms of lupus

Butterfly rash, fatigue, joint pain, fever.

AIDS

Chronic infectious disease that is caused by human immunodeficiency virus HIV. Transmitted by bodily fluids for example blood and semen. HIV destroys helper T cells, progressive loss of immune response, increase the ability to secondary infections and cancer.

Passive acquired

Antibiotics breastmilk can last week's or months.

Active acquired

Last a lifetime generally

Acquired specific

Memory, stronger reaction

Innate

First line of defense for example skin nose and mucus barriers

Keloid Scar

Tend to grow larger, invade surrounding tissue.

Fibrous Exudate

Thin, sticky, high cell and fibrin cell, can cause scaring. Indicates severe inflammation. Example: pneumonia

Hypertrophic Scar

Large amount of collagen, raised, grow large.

Purulent Exudate

Thick - yellow-green, contains more leukocytes, cell debris, and macrophages. Example: strep throat

Seguineus exudate

Red or bloody and presence of red blood cells. Expected after surgery

Local effects of inflammation

Redness, warmth, swelling, pain, and loss of function.

Serous exudate

Clear, thin, and watery. Consists primarily of fluid and some proteins and white blood cells. It is common with most inflammation. For example blisters

What is a free radical and what neutralizes it?

Unpaired electrons bind to oxygen and binds to hydrogen for stability. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals.

What are the collagen types and where are they found?

Type 1- tendons, bone, and mature scars.


Type 2- in cartilage.


Type 3- wound healinv, plasticity of skin and blood vessels, most prevelent in newborns.

What are anaerobic steroids

They are synthetic. They are derived from the hormone testosterone. They are most commonly used to build muscles. The most common side effects are increased acne, increased sex drive, and aggressive behavior. One legal anaerobic steroid is oxandrone. It is used for weight gain and to decrease bone pain from osteoporosis.

Side effects of radiation.

Fibrosis of tissues, pulmonary toxicity, radiation dermatitis, tingling and shock down arm and trunk in the nervous system when flexed, and fetal development.

Metabolic Alkalosis

Abnormal loss of acid or excessive accumulation of bicarbonate. Occurs as with vomiting, diarrhea, and slow, shallow, breaths.

Systemic affects

Affect the entire body. Physical therapy interventions may have systemic effects. Pathology may have systemic and local effects.

Metabolic acidosis

Accumulation of acids or deficit of bases in the blood as with diarrhea. ** ketoacidosis - when not enough insulin to break down glucose - cause renal failure - breath may have fruity acetone odor. Ex. Diabetes

Respiratory alkalosis

Loss of acid when lungs excrete large amount of carbon dioxide for example hyperventilation.

Respiratory acidosis

Due to hypoventilation of carbon dioxide, respiratory rate increases to get more carbon dioxide to be released, decreased blood pH.

Symptoms of electrolyte imbalance

Paresthesia, muscle weakness, wasting, muscle tetany, and bone pain.

How does sodium affect electrolytes

Blood volume, pressure, and retention of fluid

How does potassium affect electrolytes

Normal muscle contraction - rotation

How does magnesium affect electrolytes

Nervous system similar to calcium

How does calcium affect electrolytes

Neuromuscular activity nerves and muscles

What is hyoernatremia

Fluid volume deficit. High salt. Lose fluids not salt, increased thirst, weakness, altered Loc.

Effects of fluid volume excess

Weight gain, edema, dyspnea, engorged neck veins, and bounding pulse.

What happens in fluid volume loss

Decreased cardiac output, decreased blood pressure, increased pulse due to loss of fluid

In what order do organs shut down

1 lungs, to liver, 3 kidneys, for heart

What is multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

Failure of two or more organs after a severe injury or illness. Often due to sepsis and septic shock septic shock is infection throughout the whole body. You can develop fever tachycardia altered breathing an altered mental status.

What lab results are contraindications of exercise

Hemoglobin: no exercise when less than 10 grams per deciliter. Fatigue win 10 - 13 grams per deciliter. Be careful when platelets are less than 50000 per uni liter

Side effects of chemotherapy

Interferes with cell function and division, nausea vomiting, alopecia hair loss, immune system, cardiac disease, renal toxicity, cognition aka chemo brain, and peripheral neuropathy.

What are corticosteroids

Anti inflammatory for cancer, transplants, autoimmune disorders, and respiratory diseases. Natural - produced by adrenal cortex and gonadil tissue

What are common side effects of NSAIDs

GI symptoms, ulcers, sodium retention, edema, increase in blood pressure, it also doubles leading time.

What are common side effects of glucocorticosteroids

Susceptibility to infection, changing mood, sending of tissue, breakdown of muscle, stunts growth, avascular necrosis aka death of bone tissue.