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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Limited Resource Model

Muraven & Baumeister 2000, SC is like a muscle, weakens with effort, can be strengthened through training

Radishes or Chocolate Chips

Muraven & Baumeister 1998, Choc chip last longer in unsolvable puzzles

Ice Cream Eating Study

Vohs & Heatherton 2000, emotion suppression task leads to twice as much ice cream consumed

Repeated Self-Regulatory Exercises

Oaten & Cheng 2006, Training in self-regulation exercises lead to increased performance

Children wait for marshmallow or not

Metcalfe & Mischel 1999, Delay of Gratification

Hot/Cool System

Metcalfe & Mischel 1999, Hot "go" impulsive reflexive, Cool "know" slow reflective, required for self-control

Cybernetic Control Theory

Carver & Scheier 2000, feedback loops, Standard, Monitoring, Operate. Negative- reduce gap, Positive- increase gap.


Miller et al 1960, Test-Operate-Test-Exit

Health Belief Model

Threat Motivation (Susceptibility/Severity), Response Effectiveness (Benefits/Costs), Health Motivation

4 core beliefs are significant predictors of behaviour HBM

Jazz & Becker, 1984

Severity, very weak correlation, .08

Costs, weak, .21

Susceptibility, weak, .15

Benefits, weak, .13

Harrison et al, 1992

Protection Motivation Theory

Threat Appraisal (vulnerability/severity/extrinsic/intrinsic rewards), Coping Appraisal (Response Costs/ Response/Self Efficacy) leads to protection motivation

Threat Appraisal Effect Size, PMT

Small to Medium

Coping Appraisal Effect Size, PMT

Medium to Large

Small to Medium effect size when behaviour is outcome over protection motivation

Milne et al 2000

Theory of Planned Behaviour

Attitude (beliefs/evaluations of outcomes), Subjective Norm (Normative beliefs/Motivation to comply), Perceived Behavioural Control (likelihood of occurrence/facilitating/inhibiting power) leads to behaviour intention

Attitude, Subjective Norm, PBC correlation

Medium with behaviour intention, when pooled large effect size. Intention 2nd largest indicator of behaviour. McEachan et al 2011

McEachan correlation results similar to those of

Godin & Kok 1996

Two Factor TPB

Attitude (Affective/Cognitive), Subjective Norm (Injunctive/Descriptive), PBC (Perceived Control/Confidence)

Should TPB be retired? Most say improve it.

Sniehotta et al 2014

Cervical Smear Attendance

Sheehan & Orbel 2000, attendance increased from 69% to 92% from II

Women who have unrealistic goals less likely to lose weight

Linde et al 2004

Goal Characteristics

Mann, de Ridder, Fujita 2013

Aimlessness vs Overly Rigid

Approach vs Avoidance

LT vs ST

Performance vs Mastery

Saturated Fat Intake Reduction II

Luszczynska et al 2007, II group had significantly greater reduction in saturated fat intake after 6 months cf control group

Types of II

Negation (don't think/do temptation), Ignore cue (I won't feel sad), Replacement (I'll do something other than temptation)

Cognitive Rebound Effect Study #1

Adriaanse et al 2011, Accessibility of situation-response heightened for Negation II group over goal intention group

Cognitive Rebound Effect Study #2

Adriaanse et al 2011, Negation II group had shorter RT to critical target words than other II groups

Behaviour Rebound Effect Study #1

Adriaanse et al 2011, Negation group had higher caloric intake, ate more unhealthy food, and had lower self-perceived success in reducing chocolate consumption

Behaviour Rebound Effect Study #2

Adriaanse et al 2011, Negation leads to higher caloric intake from unhealthy snacks for those with strong habits cf Replacement and Control

II Effect Sizes

Meta-analyses show a range of .54 to .70 in 4 analyses

II effective in promoting goal achievement in students, the public, the physically ill, and especially effective for those with psychological problems

Gollwitzer & Sheeran 2006

Counteractive Control Theory

Trobe & Fishbach 2000

Counteractive control Study #1

Fishbach et al 2003, RTs to goal-related target words were faster when subliminally primed by a self-reported temptation cf when the prime and target were reversed

Counteractive control Study #2

Fishbach et al 2003, ppns with high subjective importance of dieting and high SR success were shown to have faster RT to goal-related words when subliminally primed with tempting food words cf all other configurations of SR success and dieting importance

Counteractive control Study #3

Fishbach et al 2003, dieting women were primed by either diet, fattening food, or control words and then offered an apple or a twix. The temptation group had faster RT and higher goal intentions than the other groups

II in unsuccessful dieters Study #1

Kroese et al 2011, II significantly increased self-reported SR success over 1 week cf successful dieters

II in unsuccessful dieters Study #2

Kroese et al 2011, II group had faster RT to goal-related words when primed with "chocolate", and consumed less chocolate over 1 week cf control group

Pie Chart Nudge Study

Salmon et al 2014, ppns choose healthy option when told most others chose it also, if their self-control is low.

Pringles Study

Geier et al 2012, putting red chips at intervals led to fewer chips being consumed, with chip intervals negatively correlating with chips consumed

Menu items Study

Rozin et al 2011, menu item position changes order rate.

Food Accessibility Study

Dayan et al 2012, decreasing access to food reduces consumption by 8-16%

Goal Disengagement in older adults

Dunne et al 2011, older adults who have low goal disengagement show increases in depressive symptoms as functional disability increases

Caregiver burden Study

Wrosch et al 2013, in caregivers, high goal disengagement leads to lower depressive symptoms and caregiver burden, and higher goal re-engagement leads to higher caregiver burden and purpose in life

Effects of Goal Disengagement

Wrosch et al 2013, goal disengagement reduces negative emotion states (depressive symptoms), and ameliorate patterns of biological dysregulation and physical health problems if people experience unattainable goals