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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cranial bones
Frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal
Facial bones
Composed of 14 fused bones, except the mandible
Coronal, lamboid, saggital
Facial muscles
Innervated by cranial nerves (CN) V—trigeminal and VII (facial)
Salivary glands
Contains cervical spine, sternocleidomastoid muscle, hyoid bone (anchors tongue), larynx, trachea, esophagus, thyroid gland, lymph nodes, carotid arteries, and jugular veins
Neck muscles
The “voice box” found below the trachea & above the pharynx
Cardiovascular Structures
Carotid arteries
Jugular vein
Thyroid gland
argest endocrine gland that produces 2 hormones
Regulates cellular metabolism
Located in the anterior portion of the neck, just below the larynx
Lymph Nodes
Posterior auricular (mastoid)
Anterior superficial cervical
Posterior superficial cervical
head Size and shape
Palpate the scalp
Fontanals on infants – posterior closes 1-2 months, anterior closes 4 months -2 years
Temporal area
Palpate temporal artery (smooth and nontender, listen if tortous)
Inspect facial structures (lesions, drainage)
Palpate temporolmandibular joint (clicking)
neck Symmetry
Head should be midline
Muscles should be symmetrical – check for atrophy
neck Range of motion
side to side, front to back
Test CN XI (spinal accessory)
Lymph nodes
Palate lymph nodes with circular motions with your finger pads
Should be mobile, discrete, soft, and nontender – normal not to find
Note any lymphadenopathy
Should be midline
Push on suprasternal notch to check for shift
Tracheal shift to the unaffected side
aortic aneurysm, tumor
Tracheal shift to the affected side
Posterior approach
thyroid gland
Examiner is behind client
Head held slightly forward and to the right left hand pushed trachea to the right right fingers palpate between trachea and sternomastoid muscle client swallows
Normally, not palpable
Anterior approach
thyroid gland
Examiner faces client
Head held forward and to the right right thumb pushes trachea to client’s right left thumb and fingers hooks around sternomastoid muscle
Auscultate – listen if palpable
Normally, no bruit
Gradual increase in intracranial pressure and head enlargement, bulging of fontanels, dilation of scalp veins
Paget’s disease of bone (osteitis deformans)
Softens, thickens, and deforms bone
Etiology unknown
Clinical Manifestations:
Bowing of long bones, acorn-shaped heads, headaches, tinnitus, progressive deafness, vertigo
Syndrome that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH) after epiphyseal plate closure at puberty
Clinical Manifestations: Enlarged, thickened skull, elongated head, enlargement of hands, feet, lips, deep voice, soft tissue swelling of internal organs
Cause: 90% by pituitary adenoma
Torticollis (wryneck)
Head tilt to one side with limited ROM
Result of hematoma in one sternomastoid muscle
Thyroid nodules
Usually r/t inflammation or goiter
Higher risk of malignancy
Down Syndrome
Trisomy 21
Genetic disorder in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46
Excessive production of thyroid hormone; tsh low (don’t need to stimulate, have enough)
Most common: Graves’ disease – quick weight loss, hot and sweaty, anxiety, goiter
Clinical Manifestations: Goiter, exophthalmos, weight loss, heat intolerance, nervousness, tachycardia, diaphoresis
Too little medication or underactive thyroid
Myxedema (hypothyroidism)
Deficiency of thyroid hormone causing non-pitting edema
Clinical Manifestations: Dry skin and hair, periorbital edema, weight gain
Tsh high (trying to stimulate)
Medication dose too high, or overactive thyroid
Bell’s palsy – facial droop; more common in younger people (20’s 30’s)
Temporary form of facial paralysis that occurs with damage to the nerve (CN VII--facial) that controls movement of the muscles in the face
Etiology unknown but thought be linked to the herpes simplex virus
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is elevated
Underactive thyroid gland not responding to the stimulating hormone
Too little thyroid medication
TSH is low
Overactive thyroid hormone
Too much thyroid replacement medication
Cluster headache
unilateral, behind eye, temporal, stabbing and excruciating pain, ptosis, wandering of eye, 30 min to 2 hours, repeat daily for weeks, common to teens, middle age, increased incidence of suicide – very painful
tension headache
bilateral, frontal or occipital, band like pain, gradual onset, last for several days, 20-40 years of each
Migraine headache
1 to 2 month, last up to 3 days, front of head, orbital