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151 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of psychological health?
our capacity to think, feel and behave in ways that contribute to our ability t enjoy life and manage challenges (Optimal Vitality)
What can influence someones psychological health?
Diet, sleep patterns, relationships, exercise
True or false psychological health and psychological normality are the same?
What is psychological diversity?
A valuable asset to society brings about a whole variety of ideas, lifestyles and attitudes
Who developed the Hierarchy of needs?
Abraham Maslow: positive outlook of psychological health
Name the hierarchy of needs from bottom to top
physiological needs, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem, self actualization
What are the sic qualities of self-actualization?
1. Realism
2. Accepting oneself as one is, positive self-image
3. Autonomy
4. Authenticity
5. Capacity for intimacy
6. Creativity
What are Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of development?
1. Trust vs. mistrust (birth-1)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and self-doubt(1-3)
3. Initiative vs. guilt (3-6)
4. Industry vs. inferiority(6-12)
5. Identity vs. identity confusion(adolescence)
6. Intimacy vs. isolation(young adulthood)
7. Generativity vs. self-absorption(Middle adulthood)
8. Integrity vs. despair (older adulthood)
When does the development of an adult identity start? and what is it?
Adolescence but is a life long process; a unified self, characterized by attitudes, beliefs and ways of acting who you are; knowing who you are, what you are capable of, what roles you play and your place among peers;
List some examples of an adult identity
gender, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, aspects of personality, choice of major, interests and talents, attitudes toward drugs and alcohol, parent's occupation, style of dress, kinds of people with whom we associate
Adult identity is permanent with no characteristics changing over time ... true or false?
False; some aspects are permanent while others can change over time
Who aids in developing an adult identity?
Role Models are a huge aspect of developing an identity
What does developing intimacy mean?
learning to live intimately with others and finding a productive role in society
What are values?
Values underlie out moral decisions and behaviour as they help us distinguish between right and wrong
What does living according to your values mean?
-Considering your options carefully before making a choice
-Choosing the best option without pressures that oppose your values
- Making a choice and acting on it rather than doing nothing
What 4 questions can you ask yourself to assess your values?
1. What personality traits do I most value?
2. What activities or accomplishments do you most value?
3. What social ideal, customs and institutions do you value?
4. How well does your current lifestyle reflect your values?
Why is spiritual wellness beneficial?
Associated with greater coping skills and overall wellness
Linked to longer life expectancy, reduced risk of disease, faster recovery and improved emotional health because it promotes social support, healthy habits, positive attitudes and relaxation
When does developing a positive self concept begin and how?
Childhood, by feeling loved, feeling one can give love and having a sense that one can accomplish goals
What is essential to a positive self-concept?
Integration or feeling that one has created their own self-concept rather than adopting an image that others have created (parents)
Stability depends on the integration of the self and its freedom from contradictions...true or false?
How can you meet challenges of self-esteem?
Notice patterns of thinking, avoid focusing on negative (cognitive distortion), develop realistic self-talk
What can happen is someone cannot cope with the challenges of self-esteem?
Begin to feel demoralized and give up as they are focusing on negative self talk; often happens with those who are predisposed to depression
What is the purpose of defence mechanisms?
to resolve conflict between wants and people around our conscience or us, which results in frustration and anxiety so we use defence mechanisms to rearrange our thoughts and feelings or "resolve"
Name the 8 defence mechanisms
Passive-aggressive behaviour
Define projection
Reacting to unacceptable inner impulses as if they were from outside the self
(A student who dislikes his roommate feels that the roommate dislikes him)
Define repression
Expelling from awareness an unpleasant feeling, idea or memory
(the child of an alcoholic, neglected father remembers him as giving, loving person)
Define denial
Refusing to acknowledge to yourself what you really know to be true
(a person believes that smoking cigarettes wont harm her because shes young and healthy)
Define passive-aggressive beahviour
Expressing hostility toward someone by being overtly uncooperative or passive
(a person tells a co worker with whom she competes for projects assignments that she will help them with a report but then never follows through)
Define displacement
shifting your feelings about a person to another person
(a student who is angry with one of his profs returns home and yells at one of his housemates)
define Rationalization
giving a false, acceptable reason when the real reason is unacceptable
(a shy young man decides not to attend a dorm party, telling himself he'd be bored)
define substitutionfd
Deliberately replacing a frustrating goal with one that is more attainable
(a student having a difficult time passing courses in chemistry decides to change his major from biology to economics)
define humour as a defence mechanism
Finding something funny in unpleasant situations
(A student whose bicycle has been stolen thinks how surprised the thief will be when he or she starts downhill and discovers the brakes don't work)
What is a pessimist?
Someone who expects repeated failure and rejection and feel they deserve it
How does someone become pessimistic?
- learned at a young age from parents or other authority figures
- Recognizing and disputing irrational, false and negative self-talk is necessary in order to overcome pessimism
Define assertiveness
Expression that is forceful but not hostile, can be helpful when communicating
how should you deal with anger in other people?
react with calmness, validate their feelings, try to solve the problem, when all else fails disengage
What is a psychological disorder?
When feeling anxious or feeling down or irrational thoughts interfere with daily activities of life and rob us of peace of mind
Anxiety Disorders...
dear is disproportionate to the actual danger
- simple pr specific phobia
- Social phobia
- Panic disorder
- Behavioural addictions
what is a simple or specific phobia?
Fear of something definite
What is a social phobia?
fear of humiliation or embarrassment while being observed by others
What is panic disorder?
sudden, unexpected surges of anxiety (with or without agoraphobia)
What is generalized anxiety disorder?
reaction to future threats is to worry, worries take over leading to persistent feelings of nervousness
What is OCD?
Obsessions: recurrent, unwanted thoughts
Compulsions: repetitive, difficult to resist actions
What are behavioural addictions?
urges to engage in behaviour creates anxiety
What is PTSD?
reaction to a severely traumatic event
What is the most effective treatment for anxiety disorders?
Combination of psych therapies and medications
What are mood disorders?
temporary mood changes typically affect overall emotional state or level of wellness, emotional disturbances that are intense and persistent enough to affect normal functioning
What is unipolar depression?
negative moods, sadness and loss of interest in activities of life
what is bipolar/manic depression?
person swings between opposite states of mania and depression
Define the term dysphoria
depressed mood or sadness
Define the term Anhedonia
Loss of pleasure in doing usual activities
What is dysthymic disorder?
experience persistent symptoms of mild or moderate depression for two years or longer
What is interpersonal therapy?
A treatment that focuses on problems in relationships and understanding events that may have triggered depression; remove guilt and self-blame
What does CBT focus on for mood disorders?
Address learned beliefs and behaviours that contribute to mood disorder
What is electroconvulsive therapy?
Electrical shock to stimulate brain
What is transcranial magnetic stimulation?
focused magnetic pulses to induce targeted seizures in parts of the brain and the control mood (prefrontal cortex)
What is schizophrenia?
Characterized by disorganized thoughts, vague and confusing
Inappropriate emotions or complete lack of
Delusions, auditory hallucinations
Deteriorating social and work function
What are the four different models of the mind?
Biological model, Behavioural Model, Cognitive model, psychodynamic model
Explain the biological model view of human nature
The mind's activity depends entirely on the brain and it's genetic composition
Explain the Bheavioural model view of human nature
Stimulus, response and reinforcement determine behaviour
Explain the cognitive model view of human nature
Attitudes, expectations and motives determine behaviour
Explain the psychodynamic model view of human nature
Unconscious ideas and impulses feed though and beahviours
What is a psychiatrist?
Specialized medical physician who can prescribe medications and determine whether there is a medical cause or connection for the patients medical problems
What is a clinical psychologist?
Focus treatment on behavioural and cognitive therapies
What are social workers?
Professionals who help find support from the community
What are licensed counsellors?
Requirements vary by state; but they are a mental health professional
What are psychiatric nurses?
Connect with social workers and psychiatrists as well
What health risks are associated with excessive body weight?
reduced life expectancy, unhealthy cholesterol levels, CVD, diabetes, cancer and bone and joint disorders
what health risks are associated with very low body weight?
threat to reproductive, circulatory, and immune system
What percent of grade 8 boys and girls are content with their body?
Girls: 30%
Boys: 70%
What is body dysmorphic disorder?
A body image disorder that involved becoming extremely preoccupied with a perceived deficit in appearance can lead to a damaged self-esteem and interfere with relationships
What is muscle dysmorphia?
See themselves to be small when they are actually very muscular
What are eating disorders?
Problems with body weight and weight control, severe disturbances in body image, eating patterns and eating related behaviour, dissatisfaction with body and weight
What factors contribute to eating disorders?
Heredity (50%)
Home environment (hostility or abuse)
Overprotective parents, cultural messages
True of false: Anorexia nervosa is characterized by failure to eat enough food to maintain a reasonable body weight?
True or false: Bulimia Nervosa is characterized by recurring episodes of binge eating followed by some form of purging?
What health risks are associated with Anorexia nervosa?
amenorrhea (menstruation stops), intolerant of cold, low blood pressure and heart rate, dry skin, hand and feet swell and take on blue tinge, depression/suicide
What health risks are associated with bulimia nervosa?
Erodes tooth enamel, deficient calorie intake, liver/kidney damage, cardiac arrhythmia, chronic hoarseness, esophageal tearing, rupture of stomach, menstrual problems, increased depression
What are the causes or indicators of Anorexia nervosa?
Fear of gaining weight, distorted self-image
Compulsive beahviours and rituals and excessive exercise
What are the causes or indicators of bulimia nervosa?
Rapidly consumes food in a short period of time
Done in secret
Feels ashamed, disgusted and physically and emotionally drained
What is binge eating disorder?
Similar to bulimia but no purging, individual becomes obese and often depressed or has major anxiety
Borderline Disordered Eating
Do not meet criteria for full eating disorder diagnostic
What does treatment focus on for Anorexia nervosa patients?
restoring adequate body weight using CBT and detailed meal plans
Combo of psychotherapy and medical managments
What does treatment for bulimia nervosa focus on?
Stabilizing eating patterns, identifying and changing patterns of thinking, improve coping skills
Combo of psychotherapy and medical managements
What is the modern definition of addiction?
Disease of the brain
Define drug habituation?
other wise known as a habit; the routine use of substance, but without the level of compulsion or increasing need that characterizes addiction
What are the 4 important characteristics of drug addiction?
1. Compulsive desire for a drug
2. The need to increase the dosage associated with psychological and physical dependence
3. Harmful effects to the individual
4. harm to society
What is meant by the term drug behaviours?
habits that are out of control and that negatively affect a persons health; any substance or activity that becomes the focus of a persons life at the expense of other needs and interests
What are the 5 characteristics of drug behaviour?
1. Reinforcement: the behaviour produces a pleasurable state or relives a negative one
2. Compulsion/craving: the individual feels a strong desire to engage in the behaviour
3. Loss of control: individual loses control over behaviour
4. Escalation: more and more of a particular substance or activity is required to produce its effects
5. Negative consequences: the behaviour continues despite serious negative consequences
Which parts of the brain make up the brain reward pathway?
Ventral tegmental area (VTA)
Nucleus Accumbens
Prefrontal cortex
Characteristics of people with addiction
Using a substance or activity as a substitute for healthcare coping strategies
Difficulty dealing with stress/painful emotions
Genetic predisposition involving emotions in brain chemistry
Problems with impulsive control and self-regulation and taking risks
List 5 examples of addiction1
1. Compulsive or pathological gambling
2. Compulsive exercise
3. Work
4. Sex and love
5. Internet
6. Shopping
What are psychoactive drugs?
A drug that alters a persons experiences or consciousness and is most often associated with abuse and addiction
What is intoxication?
short-term state in which sometimes unpredictable, physical and emotional changes occur
What changed from the DSM-4 to the DSM-5 in regards to substance abuse and substance dependence?
The DSM-4 had substance abuse and substance dependence in two separate categories whereas the DSM-5 combined the two and had to have 2 or more of all the characteristics from the two combined
(took out drug related legal problems )
(Put in craving or urge to use a substance)
In the DSM-5 what are the diagnostic criteria for substance abuse and related disorders?
Failure to fulfill major responsibilities
Drug use in situations that are physically hazardous
Drug use despite persistent social and interpersonal problems
Developing tolerance
Experience withdrawal symptoms
Taking the substance in a larger amounts over longer period
Expressing desire to cut down or regulate use
Spending great deal of time obtaining/using or recovering from its effects
Giving up/reducing social activity
Continuing to use despite known bad effects
List 5 reasons why people use drugs
1. Escape
2. Experiment
3. Alter mood
4. Cope
5. Make money
True or false: Risk factors for dependence are purely due to physical factors?
False: Risk factors for dependence are a combo of physical, psychological and social factors
What are some physical factors for dependence?
genetics, prenatal exposure, chronic pain
What are some psychological risk factors for dependence?
difficulty controlling impulses, strong need for excitement, stimulation, immediate gratification, feelings of rejection, hostility, aggression, anxiety or depression, mental illness, dual (co-occurring disorders)
What are some social factors the contribute to dependence?
Family drug use, peer drug use and living in poverty
Other consequences of drug use include...
Intoxication (falls, drowning, car crash, unsafe sex, violence and sexual assault)
Illness (nausea, constipation, paranoia, depression, heart failure, fatal overdose)
Variability in composition and toxicity
Risk associated with injection (sharing needles)
Legal consequences (fines/imprisionment)
True or false: narcotics are a type of opioid that have medical benefits in small amounts ?
True; they are used in cough suppressants
Name the main central nervous system depressants
Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, methaqualone, Gamma hydroxy-butyrate
What are the short-term effects of central nervous system depressants?
reduced anxiety, mood changes, lowered inhibitions, impaired muscle coordination, reduced pulse rate, drowsiness, loss of consciousness, respiratory depression
What are sedative hypnotics?
slow down the overall activity of CNS, anti anxiety, insomnia, seizure, combo with anesthetic for surgery
What are the main central nervous system stimulants?
Amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, crack cocaine, ritalin, caffeine and nicotine and ephedrine
What are the short-term effects of central nervous system stimulants?
Increased heart rate, blood pressure, metabolism; increased mental alertness and energy; nervousness, insomnia, impulsive behaviour, reduced appetite
What do people abuse Ephedrine for?
Weight loss, body building or increased energy
What are cannabis products?
Marijuana and hashish
What are the short-term effects of marijuana and other cannabis products?
Euphoria, slowed thinking and reaction time, confusion, anxiety, impaired balance and coordination, increased heart rate
True or false: marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug in Canada
True: over 40% have tried it at least once
What effect does cocaine have on the brain?
Cocaine blocks the removal of dopamine from a synapse; the resulting buildup of dopamine causes continuous stimulation of the receiving neruons
What are the main examples of hallucinogens?
LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, ketamine, PCP, MDMA
What are the short-term effects of hallucinogens?
Altered state of perception and feeling, nausea, increased heart rate, blood pressure, delirium, impaired motor function, numbness, weakness
True or false: hallucinogens are dangerous because even after the drug has been eliminated from the body flashbacks, altered state of consciousness, and synesthesia can occur?
What are the major inhalants?
Solvents, aerosols, nitrites, anaesthetics
What are the short term effects of inhalants?
Stimulation, loss of inhibition, slurred speech, loss of motor coordination, loss of consciousness
True or false: brain damage is not possible no matter how long an individual does not use the drug
false: brain recovery is possible with prolonged abstinence
In what cases should you see a physician?
Severe, unusual, persistent, recurrent, one versus combo of symptoms
What is considered an emergency situation in regards to a persons health?
Major trauma or injury
Uncontrollable bleeding
Intolerable pain
Severe shortness of breath
Persistent pain
Drug overdose
Loss of consciousness
Stupor, drowsiness
Severe reaction to insect bite, sting or meals
What is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)?
Therapies and practices that do not form part of conventional or mainstream health care and medical practices as taught in Canadian medical schools and offered in most canadian hospitals
What are some examples of CAM techniques?
Relaxation, herbal medicine, Massage, Chiropractic
Explain the drug factor of pharmacological properties...
The drugs overall effects on body chemistry, behaviour and psychology
What premises or assumptions does conventional medicine rely on?
Disease is caused by identifiable factors (pathogen, genetics, unhealthy lifestyle)
Certain set of symptoms similar in most patients suffering from some disease
Use of pharmaceuticals, surgery and advanced medical technology
Based on scientific method of obtaining knowledge
Objective, systematic observation
Follow rules of logic
Can make additional predictions
explain with fewest number of causes
broad explanatory power
Rigorously evaluated
many different people
scientists must be willing to toss out their hypothesis
What principles does CAM rely on?
Implies concept of along with rather than instead of
Focuses on integrating ways to restore the whole person to harmony so that he or she can regain health
What are the 5 domains of CAM?
Alternative medical systems, Mind-Body interventions, Biological-based therapies, Manipulative and body-based methods, Energy therapies
Explain the dose-response function drug factor...
Relationship between the amount of drug taken and the intensity and type of effect which may not be directed or proportional to the volume consumed
What are alternative medical systems?
Involve complete systems of theory and practise that have evolved independently of and often long before the conventional biomedical approach
- Traditional chinese medicine, Kampo,homeopathy, naturopathy
What are mind-body interventions?
Employ a variety of techniques designed to make it possible for the mind to affect bodily function and symptoms
- Meditation, hypnosis, mental healing, prayer
What are biological-based therapies?
Include natural and biologically based practises, interventions and products, many of which overlap with conventional medicine's use of dietary supplements
- herbal, special dietary, orthomolecular and individual biological therapies
What are manipulative and body-based methods?
Include methods that are based on manipulation and movement of the body
- Chiropractic, osteopathy, massage therapy
What are energy therapies?
Focus on energy field within the body (bio fields) or from other sources (electromagnetic fields)
- Qi gong, therapeutic touch, bio electromagnetic-based therapies
What does traditional Chinese medicine revolve around?
Reestablishing balanced flow of Qi through the meridians with the use of acupuncture and herbal remedies (balance expressed as yin and yang)
What is the difference between acupuncture and acupressure?
acupuncture is the insertion of thin needles into the skin at the points along meridians where as acupressure applies pressure on these points along meridians
What is homeopathy?
Treats illness by giving very small doses of drugs that in larger doses would produce symptoms like those of the illness
30-40% of all patients given a placebo show improvement..true or false ?
true; when someone swallows pills they are simply swallowing their expectations
Explain the purpose of chiropractic medicine
Focuses on the relationship between structure, primarily of joints and muscles and function, primarily of the nervous system to maintain and restore health; do not use conventioanl drugs or surgery
Explain the time action function drug factor...
Relationship between time elapsed since the drug was taken and the intensity of the effect
Explain the method os use drug factor....
Route of administration affects the strength of the response
True or false: drug use history is not considered a drug factor?
False...it is considered a drug factor
True or false: fast-in-fast-out drugs are no more addictive than slower acting drugs
false; fast in fast our drugs are more addictive; the faster a drug gets into the brain and then washes out the more intense the high which influences the addictiveness of the drug
List examples of opioid drugs
heroin, opium, Morphine, oxycodeine, codeine, hydro codeine
What are the short term effects of using opioids?
Relief of anxiety and pain, euphoria, lethargy, apathy, drowsiness, confusion, inability to concentrate, nausea, constipation, respiratory depression