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119 Cards in this Set

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Deals with large amounts of information collected from a sample of people and generalized to a larger group of people, the population. The information is gathered through a variety of processes, analyzed using statistics, generalizations are made about the population, and the information is shared with the scientific community.
quantitative research
An in-depth study of a small group of people. Gather detailed information about a small group, (not a sample), study is typically exploratory, and is used to generate ideas (hypotheses) that can be tested using quantatative research methods.
qualatative research
The systematic collection of data using questionanaires or interviews. Population, the entire group of people that we wish to know something about, Large, time consuming, expensive to study an enitre population.
survey
a small portion of the population that accurately represents the maekup of the entire population in terms of age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status, spiritually, education, etc.
representative sample
Approximately __ of research conducted in human dev. and family studies is surveyresearch.
90%
The assignment of numbers to events or objects by use of certain rules.
measurement
view of own empathy
male= 34.45

female= 36.46
view of partner's empathy
male= 50.37

female= 45.74
strengths of surveys
inexpensive, simple to administer, fast turn around rate, anonymity- encourage honest responses, collect data on sensitive topics: sex, conflict, income.
common survbey methods used to collect data and answer questions about marriage and family
questionaires and interviews, or a combonation of both.
The percentile of research done in Human Development and Family Studies used the survey method
90-95%
Smaller groups of people who are seeking assistance from mental health professionals.

Study this population so effective counseling can be done.
Clinical Research
Observation of people in their natural surroundings, particpant obersvations, non participant observations.
Field Research
Individuals are observed in a very controlled laboratory situation, very specific behaviors are exmained.
Laboratory Observation
Couples are randomly assigned to either a treatment or control group. The two groups are similar except one is given a certain treatment. Test a hypothesis or an important question.
Experiment
ethics of family research
IRB, obtain subjects consent to participate, guartantee, privacy, anoynmity, and confidentiality. Describe limitations of the study in published reports.
Possible weaknesses of the survey:
A low response rate in samples, volunteer samples typically don't represent the average person very well. People may lie in their responses. Broad understanding.
Fathers began to devote more of their time away from the home setting, at this same time a new notion of womanhood emerged, women were more moral, spiritual and tender than men. Fathers seens as economic providers. Colonial aspects faded, being a father meant being seperated from the family for most of the day.
Industrial Age fathers
Father as provider was a common idea at the turn of the century, the father's primary role was his job. WWI and WWII seperated fathers from family's even more. Influx of mothers into the workforce.
Twentieth Century fatherhood
provider still key role
new emphasis evolved on involved fathers, father participation, among upper class and educated
-blurring between the roles or women and men.
Present at bith, involved with infants, participant in the actual day to day care of child, not just playing.
Involvement with sons and daughters.
Contemporaty fathers
The actual behaviors of fathers, what fathers actaully do:
Conduct of Fatherhood
Qualitative study
interviews, 60-90 mins long
relationship as a father, relationship with your father
data collected from college student, father, mother, and grandfather
Long's Intergenerational fatherood study
by age age 75, __ women and ___ men have never married
3.6 % women and 3.8% men
most are single for a time, 75% get remarried
divorced singles
Happier than divorced, less happy then married.
widowed singles
Involves values, emotions, toughts, lifestyle, identities, behaviors and, relationships
sexuality
Direction of one's thoughts feelings and sexual interactions toward members of the same sex (inborn).
sexual orientation
denoted that a person has a choice in their sexual orientation (choice).
sexual preference
homosexual, gay, lesbian, lesibgay
Predominance of cognitive, emotional and sexual attraction toward those of the same gender.
* Kinsey Studies of Homosexuality
One homosexual experience:
- 37% of males
- 13% of females
- 10% of males were predominatly homosexual between ages of 16 and 55
- snow ball samping method
- over sampling of men in jail
Cognitive, emotional and sexual attraction to members of both genders.
bisexuality
A range of people whose gender identity does not conform to traditonal norms of masculinity and femininity (gays)
transgendered
Gender identity does not match one's biological sex.
transsexual
Persons who cross dress in the clothes, or present themselves as the other gender, only sometimes are homosexuals.
transvetites
First colony to pass sodomy laws in the U.S
1610 Virginia
First to drop death penalty for sodomy
1785 Virginia
Publishes sexuality book and talks about frequency of homosexual behavior among males.
1948 Kinsey
Investigations included gays becuase they were thought to be easily black mailed, thus were security risk.
1950 McCarthy
First state to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults in private.
1961 Illinois
Becomes the first city to adopt a nondiscrimination hiring policy on sexual orientation.
1972 Lansing
Removed homosexuality as a disorder from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
1973 APA
Most vocal opponent of gay marriages, marriage is holy and between one man and one woman, against natural moral law.
Vatican
Homosexuality is illegal in ...
50 states, death penalty in 8 of these.
First country to establish low for same sex partnerships.
Denmark 1989
Passed a law that all countries recognize same sex marriage.
European Union
The Eurpean Union consists of:
27 independent, sovereign countries.
Iniatated by courts rather then legislature
2005 Canada, Civl Marriage Act
In U.S gay marriages resigns on the sate level of jurisdciton:
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa, Vermont, and Main currently legal, WS votes in november.
2006, __ % of US.S oppose same sex marriage, in 2004 __%
51% & 63%
About __ of parents expect their are gay before their children tell them.

parents grieve for :
1/4

5 years with complete acceptance almost impossible.
Parents and friends of lesbians and gays
PFLAG
__% of all same gender couples are raising children.
25 %
Usually no agenda beyond having fun or meetings people for__ % of college students
90%
__%saw it as a means of meeting a marital partner
<5%
__% saw it as ameans for sex
<3%
__ college students hooked up once
40%
__ never hooked up
20%
__ hooked up 5-10 times
20%
__ amount of college students would cohabit
75%
__ pay little attention to social conventions
62%
__ amount of people married in 1990s cohabitated before marriage
60%
Made on bais of moral considerations, intercousre is soley for procreation, sin before God
Absolutism sexual choices
__ of a college student body said they are absolutionsists
14%
__ percent of students relatavism
60%, sexual decision is made in context of a relationship, situation. if they were in a secure relationship, love, commitment.
friends with benefits=
>50% college students
hedonism=
20% college aged students
All those people that your culture approves of you marrying.
field of elligibles
People typically marry those who live close to them, geographic nearness.
propinquity
People all over the world tend to marry others who are like themselves. These marriages tend to be more stable then heterogamous marriages.
homogamy
Choosing a mate who is different than yourself.
Heterogamy
Pressure to marry inside of your own group, religion, ethnic group, age, race, and educational background.
endogamy
Pressure to marry outside of your group. In Michigan you are not allowed to marry your first cousin, or someones of the same sex.
Exogamy
people marry homogamously in terms of :
race
Of the 58 million married couples in the U.S., less than __% are interracial marriages.
5%
Among college students, interracial dating is increasing, __% of college students say they would have no trouble dating a person of another race.
50%
Interracial couples are ____ likely to divorce than those who marry within their race.
more
People tend to marry others of the ___ martial status, never married, divorced, or widowed.
same
People tend to marry others whose physical attractiveness is _____ to their own.
similar
PA people are assumed to possess other socially desirable characteristics as sensitivity, sociability, good character.
Halo Effect
People tend to marry _________ in terms of age.
homogamously
Men select woman ___years ____ then themselves.
3-5, younger
People tend to marry _____ in terms of education.
homogamously
Consists of family income, parental education, parental occupation, social status in community. People tend to marry homo. in terms of ___.
Greater marital satisfaction if people marry within their own _____
socioeconomic class
Women tend to marry up if they don't marry someone of the same class, men tend to marry down if they don't marry someone of the same class.
mating gradient
People tend to marry____ in terms of religion.
homogamously
The ___ conservative or orthodox the religous group the ___ pressure there is to marry within your religion.
more, more
Some data attributes that relgious homogamy is related to=
marital satisfaction
The person you marry is=
a product of the family. thus we marry everything that the family has been able to impart to that individual.
We tend to select partners whose needs are ____ and ____ to our own.
opposite and complimentary
idea of opposites attract is:
empirically not true
birds of a feather...
flock together is true
A son or daughter models after the same sex parent, and marries someone similar to the one the parent selected.
Freud's ideas of mate selection
We marry the person who will give us the greatest rewards with the least costs.
exchange theory
When 692 undergrad females were asked if they have ever asked a guy out, more than__% said no
60%
__%of college women supported the view of marrying a traditional man
30%
Has perpetuated and reflected patriarchal male dominence and male bias in almost every sphere of life.
traditional american gender rol ideology
It is argued that both women and men, when selecting a mate, think more about their partners as _______ than as future parents of their offspring.
companions
Freud suggested that children acquirethe characteristics and behaviors of their same-sex parent thorigh a process of_____
identification
once children learn the concept of gender permenance,
they seek to become more competent and proper members of their gender group.
adolescent females are sometimes in conflict, becuase high academic scoring may mean:
being viewed as less feminine
more than __% of college graduates recgonize a preferred religious preference
85%
Individuals reared in different societies typicall display the...
gender role patterns of those socieities
The role of the children is to do what you are told, to be seen and not heard, to respect their parents, and to take care of them when they are old. Keep no secrets from parents.
Greek family roles
Equality between women and men. Parental rights of leave for boht parents. Women and men alike hold high status jobs
Gender roles in Swedish families
Women earn more PhDs then men they still
have lower academic rank and earn less money.
social norms of what a boy or girl should do
gender role
Emphasizes the the roles of reward and punishment inexplaining how a child learns gender role behavior .
social learning theory
Primary attraction of singlehood is the :
freedom to do as one chooses.
___ amount of men and ___ amount women said they were looking for a partner
about half of men, and about 4 in 10 women
Moral guidelines for making sexual choices in nonmarital, marital, heterosexual, and homosecual relationships:
sexual values
The view that ecncourages and accepts sexual expression of men more than women
sexual double standard
Include one's school, family. religion, and peers, as well as technology, television,social movements, and the internet.
sources of sexual values
Women reported thinking about sex ____ often then men, reported having___ sexual partners, and reported having orgasms ___ often then men.
less, fewer, less
lesibay populations in the U.S are at about __ % -__% of the total population
2%-5%
___% of gay males have kids in the home while ___% of lesbians have kids in the home
22.3% and 34.3%
Same-sex couples are also more likely than heterosexual couples to:
achieve a fair disribution of household labor and to argue more effectively and reslove conflict in a positive way.
Same-sex coiples are different from heter. in that:
same-sex couples have more concern about wheen and how to disclose their relationship to others.
Individuals select a partner similar to the opposite-sex parent
parentalimage theory
Discussing a prenuptialagreement __ months in advance isrecommended
6