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10 Cards in this Set

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Hard engineering

Using man made structures to reduce flooding and erosion.

Sea walls

Built from stone/concrete at base of cliff.Curved surface reflects wave energy.£6m for a km


+Protects cliff


+Flood barrier


+Walkways for recreation


-Doesn't absorb wave energy


-Expensive


-Maintenance needed

Groynes

Structures at 90 degree angles to stop longshore drift. £10,000 each


+Beach absorbs wave energy


+Good for tourism


+Cheap


-Need more than 1


-Erosion further down


-Ugly

Rock Armour

Large boulders at base of cliff £4,000 per metre


+Absorb wave energy


+Cheap


-May not fit with local geology


-Needs to be replaced

Wooden revetment

Break wave force + trap material.£1,000 per m


+Cheaper than sea wall


+Effective


-Less durable than sea wall


-Don't give total protection

Soft engineering

Using knowledge of the sea and its processes to reduce the effect of flooding and erosion.

Beach nourishment

Sand is added to beaches. £3,000 a metre


+Cheap


+Absorbs wave energy


+Good for tourism


-Constant maintenance


-Problems at point sand is removed

Dune regeneration

Protecting or creating dunes and planting marram grass to bind them. £2,000 per 100m.


+Cheap


+Natural environment


-Discourages tourists


-Maintenance needed

Managed retreat

Low lying land is allowed to flood.£7,500 a hectare


+Cheap


+Good habitat


-Requires compensation


-Doesn't offer protection everywhere

Gabions

Cages of boulders built into cliff face. Absorb wave energy. £350 per metre.


+Cheap


+Quick to build


-Used in large numbers


-Ugly