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10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Hard engineering

Using man made structures to reduce flooding and erosion.

Sea walls

Built from stone/concrete at base of cliff.Curved surface reflects wave energy.£6m for a km

+Protects cliff

+Flood barrier

+Walkways for recreation

-Doesn't absorb wave energy


-Maintenance needed


Structures at 90 degree angles to stop longshore drift. £10,000 each

+Beach absorbs wave energy

+Good for tourism


-Need more than 1

-Erosion further down


Rock Armour

Large boulders at base of cliff £4,000 per metre

+Absorb wave energy


-May not fit with local geology

-Needs to be replaced

Wooden revetment

Break wave force + trap material.£1,000 per m

+Cheaper than sea wall


-Less durable than sea wall

-Don't give total protection

Soft engineering

Using knowledge of the sea and its processes to reduce the effect of flooding and erosion.

Beach nourishment

Sand is added to beaches. £3,000 a metre


+Absorbs wave energy

+Good for tourism

-Constant maintenance

-Problems at point sand is removed

Dune regeneration

Protecting or creating dunes and planting marram grass to bind them. £2,000 per 100m.


+Natural environment

-Discourages tourists

-Maintenance needed

Managed retreat

Low lying land is allowed to flood.£7,500 a hectare


+Good habitat

-Requires compensation

-Doesn't offer protection everywhere


Cages of boulders built into cliff face. Absorb wave energy. £350 per metre.


+Quick to build

-Used in large numbers