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33 Cards in this Set

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venous blood sample

- collection of blood sample or administration of medication

- proper restraint is key to venipuncture technique

- insert needle bevel facing up

cephalic venipuncture

- sternal recumbency or standing position

- position of the restrainer vs position of the collector

- digital pressure is applied to vein

jugular vein is preferred when larger volume needed

jugular venipuncture

cats/small dogs- held in sternal recumbancy near edge of table

large dogs- restrained in seated position on floor

use of vacutainer system

lateral saphenous

- ideal site for blood collection in dogs

- right lateral recumbency

- position of handler for venipuncture

- placement of thumb along side vessel

medial saphenous/ femoral venipuncture

- small volumes of blood, primarily in feline patient

- use of right vein, right lateral recumbency, and abduction of left rear leg

- blood collection

arterial blood sample

- acid-base and blood gas of patient

- femoral of dorsal metatarsal arteries

- lingual, brachial and radial artery in anesthetized patient

- difference in color of arterial vs. venous blood

Urine sample collection

- gross/macroscopic analysis and/or bacterial culture

- if not analyzed in 30 minutes DON'T USE

Voided collection

- adequate for routine analysis not suited for bacterial culture

- easiest way to obtain urine using this method

- collection using a raised grate in hospitalized patients

- use of shredded wax paper in litter pan

- use of collection devise

manual bladder expression

- adequate for routine analysis, not suited for bacterial culture

- hard to perform in males, increase of intra-bladder pressure, but urethral sphincter may not relax

- standing or lateral position, isolate bladder with both hands and apply gentle pressure until urine is seen


- collect urine, relieve urethral obstruction, or empty bladder

- acceptable for bacterial culture if no cysto

- important part of quantitating urinary output

- should be removed ASAP to limit inflammation of infection of urinary tract

Catheterization Male Dog

- lateral recumbency w/ upper leg abducted

- expose tip of penis and cleanse prior to placement

- lubricate tip of penis and insert catheter sterily

- gentle pressure should be placed until urine is seen

- discard first several mls, contaminants

-secure with suture and white tape

Catheterization of Female Dog

- standing position, lateral or sternal recumbency with hind legs dangling off table

- cleansing and prep of vulva

- passage through vulva and into urethral orifice

- lighted vaginal speculum for visualization

Catheterization of Male Cat

- short acting anesthetic

- placement on his side or back with hind legs forward

- retraction of prepuce and exposure of penis

Catheterization of female cat

performed infrequently due to difficulty and requirement of sedation

- perineal region is aseptically prepared and vulva is pulled caudally

- open ended tomcat catheter along midline of floor of the vagina and into urethra


-percutaneous aspiration of urine from bladder

- specimens for urinalysis and bacterial culture

- last resort to evacuation of bladder with urethral obstruction

- restrained in dorsal/lateral recumbency or standing position

route dependent

- patient condition and treatment

- type of medication/ fluid

- urgency involved

- cost

- ease of administration

- systemic vs. local effect desired


- drugs and fluids that rapidly reach high blood levels or would be irritating to tissue

- anesthetics, chemo, anticonvulsants, cardiopulmonary resuscitation

- cephalic/ L. saphenous in dogs; cephalic, medial saphenous, femoral veins in cats

- jugular vein in both LA/SA

- occlude vessel, alcohol wipe, injection, firm pressue


- most common route for vaccine administration

- rapid injection of injected substance

- not recommended in critically ill or dehydrated patients

- dorso-lateral region from neck to hips

- fold of skin is tented and needle insertion at base and parallel to long axis of fold

- check for blood prior to injection

- briefly massage skin post injection to facilitate distribution


- small volumes of medications

- lumbrosacral musculature lateral to dorsal spinous process

- semimembranous/semitendinosis


- desensitize skin with local anesthetic

- perform allergy skin testing

- clip hair/ cleanse with water soaked gauze sponge

- skin fold, 25-27 g needle


- muzzle is held with one hand and elevated slightly


- cardiiopulmonary resuscitation

- extremely rapid reabsorption

- urinary catheter/ feeding tube is inserted into tracheal or thru ET tube

- chase with air or saline for drug dispersal


- directly into bone marrow cavity to deliver fluids, drugs, and blood products when IVC not possile

- quick into central circulation; rapid delivery in neonates, SA and circulatory collapse

- sites: tibia, femur, humerus, iliac wing


- directly into abdominal cavity

- non caustic fluid, blood products or meds

- treat peritonitis and hypovolemia

- more rapid reabsorption than SQ but more slowly than IV or IO

- shaving and aseptic preparation

topical opthalmic

req'd for medications= treat ocular disease or vaccinations

- good restraint is essential= wastage of meds


- precleaning increases contact drug and epithelium and enhanes meds absorption


tipical application can have local and sstemic absorption

- use gloves when applying

- not on patient cage that topical med has been applied and location


apply to shaved dry region of skin


location and drug delivery

topical anesthetic

contact with skin several mins prior to procedure


- lg. intestinal mucosa capable to absorbing medications

- effects may be local or systemic


- direct placement into oral cavity is frequent and easily performed

- liquids, capsule, or tablet formation

orogastric intubation

- tube passed into mouth and then into stomach