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20 Cards in this Set

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Edge Effect

1. Increase in density of populations of edge species where 2 habitat types meet (not more diversity)




2. Access to 2 habitat types > variety of vegetation

Edge

Edge is the boundary where 2 habitat types meet

Edge formula

D = a+kS




Animal density (D) is proportional to length of edge (s)




(a) is animal density in the absence of edge




(k) is proportionality constant

edge - how is it produced/considerations

1. Edge can be produced by the removal of woody plants - brush, trees, grassland mgmt, agriculture, forest clearings




2. Considerations for brush control: Method, Pattern, Size

Roller-chopping, shredding, disking, chaining

- nonselective, broad scale


- promotes resprouting


- retreatment (2-5yrs)



root-plowing

nonselective, broad scale


eliminates all woody plants


decreases diversity

bulldozing, hydroaxe, mulching, grubbing, shears

individual, selective




bulldozing and & grubbing eliminate all woody

Diversity of woody species (mechanical brush control)

1. Elimination of woody species not desired


2. community composition is a concern


3. initially diversity not affected, more treatments → diversity decreases


4. root plowing dramatically decreases diversity

Herbaceous Cover (mechanical brush control)

1. Increased herbaceous cover after treatment


2. temporary with roller chopping, shredding, disking.


3. root plowing may require reseeding


4. increased forb and grass production

Forage production (mechanical brush control)

For cattle, WTD (forbs)


Birds (seeds)


Resprouting shrubs - increased nutritional value for browsers

Clearing pattern & size

regular = cheaper, animals may be less likely to utilize clearcut


irregular = more expensive, more natural




distances > species will travel from cover will not be utilized


r = max distance from cover

Fragmentation

consequence of too much edge with respect to contiguous blocks of critical habitat

advantages of herbicides (4):

1. little soil disturbance


2. stems and trunks of defoliated plants provide cover and shade for wldlfe


3. selective suppression of woody species


4. reduced competition for establishment of desirable grasses/forbs

disadvantages of herbicides(5):

1. many broad leaved herb. plants are forage for spp.


2. foliar sprays restricted to certain stages of development


3. restricted application of foliar sprays (wind and temp.)


4. resistant species increase


5. residues

Residues

That quantity of herbicide remaining in or on the soil, or plant parts




contamination issue


residue must persist for a time to be effective


soil applied forms last longer

Herbicide application methods (2)

Aerial application - fixed wing, helicopter



Ground application


tractor mounted


hand application


back pack, foliar, basal, handwicking


soil applied

Modes of action (herbicides)

foliar-active - translocated


Contact herbicides - rapid action


soil-active herbicides - root or shoot inhibitors

Management use (herbicides) (6)

1. personal preference


2. Species specific herbicides & application rates-3. Create and maintain openings


4. manage composition of herbaceous


5. enhance wildlife food plants


6. in conjunction with mechanical methods, manage wildlife w/o degradation

Creative use (herbicides)

- removal of brush/brush canopy - Tebuthiuron(Graslan) elminates whitebrush, leaves mesquite savannah. standing dead material provides screening, no damage to forb or grass


- Picloram (Tordon) - damages forb production/food availability


soil-active herbicides + autumn soil disturbance → warm season food plants


Soil active,pre-emergent herbicides + summer soil disturbance → cool season food plants

Strip application

→ alternating perpendicular strip - treatment at ½ recommended rate Variable rate patterning (VRP) - 3 dosage rates, 0, ½, full.