Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Edge Effect

1. Increase in density of populations of edge species where 2 habitat types meet (not more diversity)

2. Access to 2 habitat types > variety of vegetation


Edge is the boundary where 2 habitat types meet

Edge formula

D = a+kS

Animal density (D) is proportional to length of edge (s)

(a) is animal density in the absence of edge

(k) is proportionality constant

edge - how is it produced/considerations

1. Edge can be produced by the removal of woody plants - brush, trees, grassland mgmt, agriculture, forest clearings

2. Considerations for brush control: Method, Pattern, Size

Roller-chopping, shredding, disking, chaining

- nonselective, broad scale

- promotes resprouting

- retreatment (2-5yrs)


nonselective, broad scale

eliminates all woody plants

decreases diversity

bulldozing, hydroaxe, mulching, grubbing, shears

individual, selective

bulldozing and & grubbing eliminate all woody

Diversity of woody species (mechanical brush control)

1. Elimination of woody species not desired

2. community composition is a concern

3. initially diversity not affected, more treatments → diversity decreases

4. root plowing dramatically decreases diversity

Herbaceous Cover (mechanical brush control)

1. Increased herbaceous cover after treatment

2. temporary with roller chopping, shredding, disking.

3. root plowing may require reseeding

4. increased forb and grass production

Forage production (mechanical brush control)

For cattle, WTD (forbs)

Birds (seeds)

Resprouting shrubs - increased nutritional value for browsers

Clearing pattern & size

regular = cheaper, animals may be less likely to utilize clearcut

irregular = more expensive, more natural

distances > species will travel from cover will not be utilized

r = max distance from cover


consequence of too much edge with respect to contiguous blocks of critical habitat

advantages of herbicides (4):

1. little soil disturbance

2. stems and trunks of defoliated plants provide cover and shade for wldlfe

3. selective suppression of woody species

4. reduced competition for establishment of desirable grasses/forbs

disadvantages of herbicides(5):

1. many broad leaved herb. plants are forage for spp.

2. foliar sprays restricted to certain stages of development

3. restricted application of foliar sprays (wind and temp.)

4. resistant species increase

5. residues


That quantity of herbicide remaining in or on the soil, or plant parts

contamination issue

residue must persist for a time to be effective

soil applied forms last longer

Herbicide application methods (2)

Aerial application - fixed wing, helicopter

Ground application

tractor mounted

hand application

back pack, foliar, basal, handwicking

soil applied

Modes of action (herbicides)

foliar-active - translocated

Contact herbicides - rapid action

soil-active herbicides - root or shoot inhibitors

Management use (herbicides) (6)

1. personal preference

2. Species specific herbicides & application rates-3. Create and maintain openings

4. manage composition of herbaceous

5. enhance wildlife food plants

6. in conjunction with mechanical methods, manage wildlife w/o degradation

Creative use (herbicides)

- removal of brush/brush canopy - Tebuthiuron(Graslan) elminates whitebrush, leaves mesquite savannah. standing dead material provides screening, no damage to forb or grass

- Picloram (Tordon) - damages forb production/food availability

soil-active herbicides + autumn soil disturbance → warm season food plants

Soil active,pre-emergent herbicides + summer soil disturbance → cool season food plants

Strip application

→ alternating perpendicular strip - treatment at ½ recommended rate Variable rate patterning (VRP) - 3 dosage rates, 0, ½, full.