Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Coulter principle - Impedance or direct current

*counting & sizing cells

*based on:

*2 compartment container w/ aperture between

*electrodes suspended from the top of each compartment connected to an ohmmeter measuring resistance between them

*saline soln covers electrodes

*cells are added to one side

*spigot is opened

*increase in resistance detected by ohmmeter as a pulse when a cell passes through aperture displacing electrolyte (saline soln)

*# of cells (needle flicks) per mL can be measured

*replace ohmmeter w/ a battery and oscilloscope-electrical pulse appears as spike on oscilloscope screen (height of spike is proportional to cell size)

Thresholds & channels in cell counting

Aperture impedence systen - sweep flow principle

Hydrodynamic focusing principle

*laminar flow ensures single file cell passage

*coincidence effects minimized

*diluted blood is injected into center of a "sheath" stream of buffered saline which is forced through a tapered flow chamber

*electro-optical flow cytometer provides concurrent electronic & optical measurements

Conductivity (radio/other high freq wave) principle

*measures internal cell structures (nucleus & granules) using radiographic imaging similar to ultrasound

*proprietary tech

Laser light principle

*light scatter measures cell surface granularity using broad range of angles, 60+angles of light scatter are analyzed

Fluorescent flow cytometry principle

*unique to Sysmex

*fluorescent stain for nucleic acid & cytoplasmic organelles

*measures fluorescence & side angle light scatter to differentiate cells

*side fluorescence light: RNA/DNA info

Histogram principle

*each spike is 1 cell

*spike height is proportional to cell size

*grouped together into size categories

Scatterplot/Scattergram principle

Coulter: 3 probes (DC, RF & scatter) interrogate each of the cells simultaneously

*every cell treated in the same manner and each is given an X, Y, & Z coordinate

* all cell pops are directly measured

Sysmex: measures forward scatter (size), side scatter (internal structure) & side fluorescence (RNA/DNA info)

*placement is based on size and internal structure

Normal RBC histogram

Abn RBC histogram - cold agglutinins

Abn RBC histogram - macrocytic cells, possibly dimorphic RBCs

Abn RBC histogram - fragments (schistocytes, microcytes, giant plts, nrbcs)

Abn RBC histogram - dimorphic RBCs (due to transfusion)

Normal plt histogram

Abn plt histogram

Top & middle: giant plts can show up in WBC histogram
Bottom: small plts (shifted curve)

Top & middle: giant plts can show up in WBC histogram

Bottom: small plts (shifted curve)

Normal WBC histogram

Abn WBC histogram - immNE1 & immNE2

Abn WBC histogram - lymphocytosis

Abn WBC histogram - variant lymph

Abn WBC histogram - immNE2

Abn WBC histogram - eosinophilia

Abn WBC histogram - blasts

Normal Dataplot (Coulter)

Abn Dataplot (Coulter)

Normal Scattergram (Sysmex)

vs. Coulter
*Neus & eos are lower
*Baso more separate from lymphs

vs. Coulter

*Neus & eos are lower

*Baso more separate from lymphs

Abn scattergram (Sysmex)