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27 Cards in this Set

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Coulter principle - Impedance or direct current

*counting & sizing cells


*based on:


*2 compartment container w/ aperture between


*electrodes suspended from the top of each compartment connected to an ohmmeter measuring resistance between them


*saline soln covers electrodes


*cells are added to one side


*spigot is opened


*increase in resistance detected by ohmmeter as a pulse when a cell passes through aperture displacing electrolyte (saline soln)


*# of cells (needle flicks) per mL can be measured


*replace ohmmeter w/ a battery and oscilloscope-electrical pulse appears as spike on oscilloscope screen (height of spike is proportional to cell size)

Thresholds & channels in cell counting

Aperture impedence systen - sweep flow principle


Hydrodynamic focusing principle

*laminar flow ensures single file cell passage


*coincidence effects minimized


*diluted blood is injected into center of a "sheath" stream of buffered saline which is forced through a tapered flow chamber


*electro-optical flow cytometer provides concurrent electronic & optical measurements

Conductivity (radio/other high freq wave) principle

*measures internal cell structures (nucleus & granules) using radiographic imaging similar to ultrasound


*proprietary tech

Laser light principle

*light scatter measures cell surface granularity using broad range of angles, 60+angles of light scatter are analyzed

Fluorescent flow cytometry principle

*unique to Sysmex


*fluorescent stain for nucleic acid & cytoplasmic organelles


*measures fluorescence & side angle light scatter to differentiate cells


*side fluorescence light: RNA/DNA info

Histogram principle

*each spike is 1 cell


*spike height is proportional to cell size


*grouped together into size categories

Scatterplot/Scattergram principle

Coulter: 3 probes (DC, RF & scatter) interrogate each of the cells simultaneously


*every cell treated in the same manner and each is given an X, Y, & Z coordinate


* all cell pops are directly measured


Sysmex: measures forward scatter (size), side scatter (internal structure) & side fluorescence (RNA/DNA info)


*placement is based on size and internal structure



Normal RBC histogram

Abn RBC histogram - cold agglutinins

Abn RBC histogram - macrocytic cells, possibly dimorphic RBCs

Abn RBC histogram - fragments (schistocytes, microcytes, giant plts, nrbcs)

Abn RBC histogram - dimorphic RBCs (due to transfusion)

Normal plt histogram

Abn plt histogram

Top & middle: giant plts can show up in WBC histogram
Bottom: small plts (shifted curve)

Top & middle: giant plts can show up in WBC histogram


Bottom: small plts (shifted curve)

Normal WBC histogram

Abn WBC histogram - immNE1 & immNE2

Abn WBC histogram - lymphocytosis



Abn WBC histogram - variant lymph

Abn WBC histogram - immNE2

Abn WBC histogram - eosinophilia

Abn WBC histogram - blasts

Normal Dataplot (Coulter)

Abn Dataplot (Coulter)

Normal Scattergram (Sysmex)

vs. Coulter
*Neus & eos are lower
*Baso more separate from lymphs

vs. Coulter


*Neus & eos are lower


*Baso more separate from lymphs

Abn scattergram (Sysmex)