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54 Cards in this Set

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International Astronomical Union

IAU

1. Must orbit sun


2. Must be generally round


3. Must sweep out path as it goes around the sun

To Be a Planet:

The inner solar system / terrestrial planets

-Mercury


-Venus


-Earth


-Mars



Terrestrial planets

rocky, bulk solid



Mercury

-Highly cratered


-closest to sun


-no moons


-no atmosphere

Venus

-most volcanic body in entire solar system


-brightest object in sky


-similar in size & composition to Earth


-Very dense atmosphere (greenhouse effect, sulfuric clouds & lightening)

Earth

Densest planet; 3rd rock from sun

Mars

-roman god of war

-2 small moons


-thin atmosphere


-Polar Ice Caps (water?)


`

Olympus mons

largest volcano in solar system


-mars

Mars 2 moons

-phobos


-Deimos

Asteroid Belt

-small rocky bodies


-orbit sun


-most in belt b/t mars & Jupiter


-*Failed planet

Outer Solar system

-Jupiter


-saturn


-uranus


-neptune


-*layered structure


-no solid surface

Jupiter

-mostly hydrogen & Helium


-fastest rotation


-Harsh Atmosphere


-*potentially failed second star

How many moons does jupiter have?

28



Jupiter Moons

IO


Europa


Ganeymede


Calisto


*gallilean moons (very similar to first 4 planets

Red Dot on jupiter

huge storm

What is Jupiter's & Saturn's atmosphere made out of?

methane, ammonia, hydrogen

Saturn

-Lowest density planet (would float on water)


-95x Mass of the earth


-*gaseous giant

How many moons does saturn have?

30

Saturn;s moons

-titan


-Enceladus


-*liquid water?

Measuring stars

-emit electromagnetic radiation


-measurement of photons from stars


-wave length, intensity, direction, variations

Parallax

angle b/t observations of a distant object; greater the angle, greater the parallax

Triangulation

Process of parallax

Sun

-4.6-4.8 Billion years old


-99% of all the mass in the solar system


-109x earth


-93 million miles from earth


-99% hydrogen & Helium

Star

fusion reactor; large plasma bodies, controlled by inward drawing gravity vs. outward pressure from nuclear fusion

Structure of Sun

-radiation zone (surrounds core)


-Convection Zone


-Photosphere


-Chromosphere


-Corona (crown)


-Spicules (fiery spiky things)


-Prominence (lava)


-Sun Spots

Properties of stars: color

-controlled by temp


-red: coolest


- blue: hottest


-yellow: middle (sun)

Properties of stars: Brightness

-total energy output


-more massive the star, more intense the fusion reactions


-the more we get rid of protons in the hydrogen envelope

Planetary Nebula

comprised of a mix of elements up to iron

Main factors of stars changing over time


-total mass


-composition


-age

Life cycles of stars: less massive than sun

-just barely big enough to burn hydrogen


-brown dwarf


-glows slowly


-lives 100 billion year


-no change in size, temp, energy

Life cycles of stars: about the size of the sun

-hydrogen burning at fast rate


-H burning produces helium


-When H burns out, gravity takes over


-starts contract & heat up

Life cycles of stars: Very large stars

-successive collapses & burnings


-iron core


-star explosions (super nova)


-Element collisions & chain reactions

Supernova

every element in the periodic table is produced

red giant

helium burning

Super nova: type 1

large star expands and overlaps w/ a smaller star


-smaller star gains mass and explodes

Super nova: Type 2

Large star gains too much mass via fusion to support it against gravity


-Core implodes, then atomic particles react & explode outward

Neutron star

-dense & small


-high rotation rate


-little light (low luminosity)

Pulsars

-*type of neutron star


-electromagnetic radiation field


-end state of supernova


-"little green men"

Blackholes

Result of collapse of large star


-"ultimate triumph of gravity"


-nothing escapes from surface (even light)


-Cannot see them, see impact on other stars

Hydrogen in its most abundant form on Earth consists of:

A proton

T/F Neptune spins on its side

False

The planet combo lacking moons is....

Mercury & Venus

4 Atomic symbols for the organics are?

C O N H

Majority of what we are breathing?

Nitrogen

Earth is mostly made out of :

Rock

Transition metals are:

metals

Coldest planet?

Uranus

Black holes are examples of....?

Gravitational Collapse

T/F Venus is not volcanic

False

The number of protons an element has determines....?

Atomic number

Ice giants

Uranus


Neptune

T/F The solar system has more than one star

False

The gravitational force due to the planet is strongest on...?

Earth, largest mass