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58 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Protrusion vs. Retrusion

Sticking jaw forward and bringing jaw back

Role of CT

Connect, protect, supports body and organs, store energy as fat reserves

CT consists of...

Cells and a matrix

Matrix consists of...

Fibers (collagen and elastin) and a ground substance

Elastin CT fibers are found in...

Ligaments and cartilage

How does specialized CT differ from proper?

It is solid, resists pull and pressure

When there is lots of fat, loose proper CT is...

Adipose tissue

What does fascia store?

Water and fat

Function of fascia?

Mechanical protection against blows, pathway for nerves and blood vessels to enter and exit muscles

Septa

Medial and lateral deep fascia in limbs


Separates anterior or flexor muscles from posterior or extensor muscles

Internal fascia

Connects pleura (thorax) and peritoneum (abdomen) to body wall

Ligaments connect...

Bone to bone

Ligaments are composed of... (what is the exception to this)

Densely packed parallel collagen fibers


Exception: ligaments flava of vertebral column contains elastic fibers

Joints connect...

Muscles to bone

Aponeurosis

Layered sheetlike connective tissue functions as a flattened tendon


layers are of different orientations

Bursae


Connective tissue sacs filled with synovial fluid


flattened with walls in apposition to each other


deep- protects tendons from friction with bone, ligaments or tendons


subcutaneous- between bone and skin



Tendon sheaths

Bursa-like structure but envelop entire tendons

Chondrocytes

Cells that make the matrix

Function of cartilage

Functions to decrease friction


Found at ends of long bones, anterior ends of ribs and support of trachea

Function of fibrocartilage

Functions as a shock absorber



Knee joint menisci & Intervertebral discs


has a nerve and blood supply on the perimeter

Where is elastic cartilage found

External ear


Distal nose


Ligamentum flava

The matrix in bone is for...

Resilience (tensile strength and toughness)

Purpose of minerals in bone...

Hardness (compressive strength) and rigidity

Periosteum

Connective tissue encasing the bone


carries blood vessels, lymphatics & nerve fibers


contains osteogenic cells for repair of fractures

Two components of bone

Cortex (dense)- supplied by periosteal arteries



Spongy (cancellous)- supplied by nutrient artery that enters center of bone

Five functions of bone

Protection, support, mechanical, blood, mineral

Shapes of bones

Long bones, short bones, flat or squamous bones, irregular bones sesamoid bones

What makes up the axial skeleton

Skull


vertebral column


sternum and ribs

Synarthroses (2 importances)

Bones directly connected to each other via connective tissue


Tend to play more in the role of stability

How do synchondrosis and symphysis differ?

Synchondrosis are more rigid, is the primary CJ, hyaline cartilage



Symphysis probably have more movement, secondary CJ, fibrocartilage

Diarthroses (2 importances)

Bones are indirectly connected via joint capsule


more associated with movement than stability

Everything has a nerve and blood supply except...

Hyaline cartilage

Three things that contribute to the stability of joints

1. Shapes of bones


2. Ligaments


3. Dynamic stability (muscles and tendons)

Motor unit

A group of muscle fibers and the single motor neuron that innervates them

Two types of parallel muscle

Strap


Fusiform

Types of Pennate muscle

Unipennate, bipennate, multipennate

Origin/insertion

Normal action= insertion moves towards origin


Origin is usually proximal or superior

Reverse

Origin moves toward insertion


example pec major can help with breathing

Agonist/antagonist

The agonist are the prime movers


antagonist opposes movement



Ex: elbow extension where the agonist is the tricep

Synergist

Help the agonist


compensate for unwanted actions



Ex: brachialis is synergist for elbow FL

Spurt/shunt

Spurt: O is distant to J, I is near to J


More motion



Shunt: O is near J, I far from J


Helps stabilize J

The CNS is comprised of...

Brain- brain stem, cerebellum, cerebrum



Spinal cord

The PNS is comprised of...

12 pairs of cranial nerves


31 pairs of spinal nerves

Glia

Support neurons


Mop of excess K+ after action potential

Three types of neurons

Efferent, afferent, interneurons

Meninges

Connective tissue enclosing CNS

Cerebrospinal fluid

Reduces weight of brain by 97%


Function is to support and protect


NOT NUTRITIVE

2 functions of the spinal cord

1. Major reflex center



2. Conduction pathway between brain and body

Gray matter regions..

Dorsal horn, ventral horn, interneurons, lateral horn

Which meninges is only in spinal cord, not brain

Denticulate ligament

2 primary curves

Kyphotic- thoracic and sacral

2 secondary curves

Lordotic- cervical and lumbar

Intervertebral discs are composed of

Nucleus pulposus (middle gooey part)


Annulus fibrosis (perimeter/ring)


Ruptured disc

Tear through annulus fibrosus (posterior-lateral part)

ROM in vertebral column: rotation

Decreases as move down VC

ROM in vertebral column: FL EXT

Largest in cervical and lumbar

ROM in vertebral column: lateral bending

Small everywhere, smallest in thoracic, 0 in sacrum

Zygapophyseal joints

Joints between vertebral arches


AKA facet joints


Plane joints