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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Protrusion vs. Retrusion

Sticking jaw forward and bringing jaw back

Role of CT

Connect, protect, supports body and organs, store energy as fat reserves

CT consists of...

Cells and a matrix

Matrix consists of...

Fibers (collagen and elastin) and a ground substance

Elastin CT fibers are found in...

Ligaments and cartilage

How does specialized CT differ from proper?

It is solid, resists pull and pressure

When there is lots of fat, loose proper CT is...

Adipose tissue

What does fascia store?

Water and fat

Function of fascia?

Mechanical protection against blows, pathway for nerves and blood vessels to enter and exit muscles


Medial and lateral deep fascia in limbs

Separates anterior or flexor muscles from posterior or extensor muscles

Internal fascia

Connects pleura (thorax) and peritoneum (abdomen) to body wall

Ligaments connect...

Bone to bone

Ligaments are composed of... (what is the exception to this)

Densely packed parallel collagen fibers

Exception: ligaments flava of vertebral column contains elastic fibers

Joints connect...

Muscles to bone


Layered sheetlike connective tissue functions as a flattened tendon

layers are of different orientations


Connective tissue sacs filled with synovial fluid

flattened with walls in apposition to each other

deep- protects tendons from friction with bone, ligaments or tendons

subcutaneous- between bone and skin

Tendon sheaths

Bursa-like structure but envelop entire tendons


Cells that make the matrix

Function of cartilage

Functions to decrease friction

Found at ends of long bones, anterior ends of ribs and support of trachea

Function of fibrocartilage

Functions as a shock absorber

Knee joint menisci & Intervertebral discs

has a nerve and blood supply on the perimeter

Where is elastic cartilage found

External ear

Distal nose

Ligamentum flava

The matrix in bone is for...

Resilience (tensile strength and toughness)

Purpose of minerals in bone...

Hardness (compressive strength) and rigidity


Connective tissue encasing the bone

carries blood vessels, lymphatics & nerve fibers

contains osteogenic cells for repair of fractures

Two components of bone

Cortex (dense)- supplied by periosteal arteries

Spongy (cancellous)- supplied by nutrient artery that enters center of bone

Five functions of bone

Protection, support, mechanical, blood, mineral

Shapes of bones

Long bones, short bones, flat or squamous bones, irregular bones sesamoid bones

What makes up the axial skeleton


vertebral column

sternum and ribs

Synarthroses (2 importances)

Bones directly connected to each other via connective tissue

Tend to play more in the role of stability

How do synchondrosis and symphysis differ?

Synchondrosis are more rigid, is the primary CJ, hyaline cartilage

Symphysis probably have more movement, secondary CJ, fibrocartilage

Diarthroses (2 importances)

Bones are indirectly connected via joint capsule

more associated with movement than stability

Everything has a nerve and blood supply except...

Hyaline cartilage

Three things that contribute to the stability of joints

1. Shapes of bones

2. Ligaments

3. Dynamic stability (muscles and tendons)

Motor unit

A group of muscle fibers and the single motor neuron that innervates them

Two types of parallel muscle



Types of Pennate muscle

Unipennate, bipennate, multipennate


Normal action= insertion moves towards origin

Origin is usually proximal or superior


Origin moves toward insertion

example pec major can help with breathing


The agonist are the prime movers

antagonist opposes movement

Ex: elbow extension where the agonist is the tricep


Help the agonist

compensate for unwanted actions

Ex: brachialis is synergist for elbow FL


Spurt: O is distant to J, I is near to J

More motion

Shunt: O is near J, I far from J

Helps stabilize J

The CNS is comprised of...

Brain- brain stem, cerebellum, cerebrum

Spinal cord

The PNS is comprised of...

12 pairs of cranial nerves

31 pairs of spinal nerves


Support neurons

Mop of excess K+ after action potential

Three types of neurons

Efferent, afferent, interneurons


Connective tissue enclosing CNS

Cerebrospinal fluid

Reduces weight of brain by 97%

Function is to support and protect


2 functions of the spinal cord

1. Major reflex center

2. Conduction pathway between brain and body

Gray matter regions..

Dorsal horn, ventral horn, interneurons, lateral horn

Which meninges is only in spinal cord, not brain

Denticulate ligament

2 primary curves

Kyphotic- thoracic and sacral

2 secondary curves

Lordotic- cervical and lumbar

Intervertebral discs are composed of

Nucleus pulposus (middle gooey part)

Annulus fibrosis (perimeter/ring)

Ruptured disc

Tear through annulus fibrosus (posterior-lateral part)

ROM in vertebral column: rotation

Decreases as move down VC

ROM in vertebral column: FL EXT

Largest in cervical and lumbar

ROM in vertebral column: lateral bending

Small everywhere, smallest in thoracic, 0 in sacrum

Zygapophyseal joints

Joints between vertebral arches

AKA facet joints

Plane joints