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31 Cards in this Set

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How is ozone formed?

(UVC<240) + O2=2O.

O +O2=O3 plus heat

In this reaction the harmful short wavelength ucv is converted into heat energy.

How does ozone work?

(Uv240-310) + O3= O2 + O

O +O2=O3 backwards reaction exothermic as energy is released

This is effective as radiotion is simply converted in to heat (kinetic) energy without depleting ozone.

How is ozone removed in the atmosphere?

O3 +O=2O2

You need to make o2

What wavelength is UVC

200-280nm screened out my ozone making process and by ozone itself

How is UVC dangerous

It has medium wavelength of 280-320 therefore some of it may pass the ozone layer causes sunburn and possible skin cancer

What is UVA radiation?

Long wavelength of 320-400nm and has little energy so it is not absorbed by Ozone and has very little effect on life

What type of reactions occur in the depletion of ozone

Free radical substitution

NO● radicals

CL● radicals

Overall result in o3+o=2o2

What are cfcs?


Otline the initiation step in removal of ozone?

CFCl3 +(very high energy UV radiation)

=CFCl2● + CL●

This is heterolytic fission.

Outline the proportion step in removal of ozone via cfcl3

CL● +O3= CLO● +O2

CLO● + O = CL● + 02

This is a continous cycle where cl radicals are being reformed and 'attacking other ozone molecules'

The termination step shows:


Propagation step of removal of ozone via NO●

No• + o3= No2• + O2

No2• + O= No• + 02

State what stereoism is?

What is the atom economy of addition reactions?


What reaction do alkenes go through to form halagoalkanes?

Electrophilic addition reactions

Why do alkanes only go through nuclrophilic substitution?

They do not have a double bond to form a new bond and so can only substitute old bonds for new bonds.

What uses do esters have?

Adhesives and solvants and perfumes and food flavourings

What ester is responsible for the smell of oranges?

Octyl ethanoate

On what side can you find a Methyl group In a ester?

Left (yl)

What occurs during esterification?

The reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid with a acid catalyst

And produce water

Elimination reaction?

Where a Alcohil is dehydrated producing an alkene.

Under the presence of acid catalyst.

Oh and h must come from separate carbons.

What happens when a halagonoalkane reacts with aques or molten hydroxides?

Nucleophilic addition reaction in which a alcohol is formed through hydrolosis.

Define reflux

Continous boiling and condensing making sure that the reactants do not dry out and continously react

What is the name of this

3 bromo, 2 chloropentane

Alphabetical order

Nucleophilic substitution

A nuclrophile which is attracted to an electron deficient region where it donates an electron forming a bond.

Often involves replacement of an halogen so has low atom economy.

Electrophilic addition reactions

Involves an electophile usually a hydrogen halide which will be attracted to electron dense regions (double bond) break it and add itself onto the hydrocarbon.

Have 100% atom economy as they do not substitute for anything.

Difference between atom economy and percentage yield?

Atom economy shows proportion of desired products relative to all products formed

P yield show effecieny of product yield.

What does mass spectroscopy tell us

The abundance of each isotope so the relative atomic mass can be calculated by timing by percentages, adding all the isotopes up and divide by 100.

How does a primary alchohol oxidising show ?

Orange to green

Potassium di chromate


What does the esterification of alcohol result in


Difference between Q and ♢H

♢is the change in enthalpy of the system

Q is the energy change in surroundings and usually positive.