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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)

Present simple

Routines I go to gym every day

General statements: the sun is yellow

State verbs :smell tast

Simple past

Completed actions in the past ( I graduated in 2008)

Routines habits in the past( I played tennis every week)

!!!!immer wenn zeitangabe gegeben ist,wie vor 5 minutes ago or 2008 or this morning-> simple past

Present continuous

Action in progress right now and in the present time: I am listening to music. I am watching game of thrones these day's.

Development over a long period of time: the ozone layer is deteriorating.

Present perfect

Always without exact time like at 2008 !!!!

Experiences: I have never seen the empire state building

Für Dinge in der vergangenheit mit impact auf gegenwart: I have eaten a pizza( I am still filled) Paul has washed his car( it's still clean)

I have lived here for more than 30 years( still living there)

Present perfect continuous

Handlungen starten in der vergangenheit und dauern bis jetzt an. I have been waiting for you since 5 / for 3 hours.

Focus what happened:you are smelling!! I have been playing football the whole afternoon.

Future perfect simple

Action finished at a specific time in the future . Needs time phrase

By this time next year, I will have worked here for 5 years.

Relative clauses

1 defining : info about who or what we are talking. Important.

What's the name of the man who just came in . ( Without command)

2. Non-defining: clauses with extra information: this is john, who is joining our company.


Formal. There are 20 students, many of whom are from sa.

None,one,two..,some,half, most,all of whom/which

For 2 neither,one,both of whom/which


formal. As a result of which: there have been some issues with drugs, as a result of which the police ...

Relative clauses time

The opera house opened 1930, (since when) thousands of visitors have visited every year

I waited for him until 7, at which point I gave up and went home.

The war ended in 1945, (by which time )millions had lost their lives.


Certain: it must,can't

Less certain: may,might could

Past could +have+pp

Wish/if only

Sth you want different in the present. I wish I were taller.

Wish doing right now

I wish I was laying on a beach at bora bora.


I wish I could play piano

Wish different in the past

If only I hadn't drunk so much last night.

User uses of past ( high time, would rather

It's high time we left this party .

It's about time we left the party.

It's about time we were helping the environment.

I would rather you didn't smoke.

I would rather you hadn't smoked here

I would prefer you didn't smoke here.


100% if you heat ice ,it melts.

50 present/future If it's raining this weekend(present simple), I will stay home( modal present(may,might,could)

0,01% present/future if I won the lottery(past simple), I would buy a mansion.( Past modal would(100%)may,might50%, could ability

Advice if I were you,I would come more often to class.

Past if I hadn't come to Australia(pp), I would have continued doing nothing.( Past modal+have+pp)

Possible mix 3+2 and 2+3

If the car hadn't been invented,the people wouldn't be so fat

If I were prime minister, I would have legalized wheed

Impersonal reporting

It is believed that shakiras hips don't lie (past was believed, 2 part the same)

Shakiras hips are believed not to lie .



Prediction using internal evidence( only from your brain)

Be going to

Prediction using external evidence(outside source)->the plain is going to crash;the wings have fallen of.

Intentions/plans sth you want

I am going to retire next year

Present continuous for future arrangements

Fixed arrangements with a second party, hard to chance..

I am retiring next year.

Present simple for future

Timetables the train leaves at 9:30

Future continuous

Action in progress in future

In two months I will be driving around Hawaii.

Future perfect

A finished action in the future

By the time I am 50, I will have traveled 50 countries.

Reported speech

Present simple- past simple

Present continuous - past continuous

Present perfect- past perfect

Past simple- past participle


Under no circumstances must you..

On no account should you be late to the exam

At no point/ time did I have sexual relations with that woman

No way would I ever go to the ivy

Never have I seen such a beautiful girl

Seldom/ rarely/ scarcely do you see such beautiful girls here

No sooner had I put the phone down than it rang again

Hardly/ barely had I got home when the phone rang

Not only was I here, but Terry also was there

Little do people realise/ understand/ know

What type