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86 Cards in this Set

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Rose (1996)
in discussing the centrality of expertise in governmentality, has argued that the authority and legitimacy generated by the supposed objectivity of science produced new kinds of knowledge/power and techniques for regulation
Butler (1996)
she goes on to note that Foucault did not pay enough attention to the very political work of exclusion, stating that ‘oppression works not merely through the mechanisms of regulation and production but by foreclosing the very possibility of articulation’ (1996: 68). Butler’s critique asks us to think about the ways in which some subjectivities are rendered intelligible and some unintelligible, invisible and unsayable
Dean (1999) - Governmentality
studies of governmentality are concerned with how thought operates within our organized ways of doing things, our regimes of practices, and with its ambitions and effects linking thought to technical means by which conduct is shaped and reshaped
Moufe (1999)
Relations of power are constitutive of the social, we create forms of power (and it'd be good if we made them democratic)
Rose (2002)
Resistance occurs ERRDAY
Giddens (1984)
Double Hermeneutic' we affect the things we study, concepts about the world describe and change it, even by observing we change, links to situated knowledge and anti view from above (Harraway etc.)
Foucault (1972)
Power produces knowledges, discourses, runs through whole social body, idea of productive network
Foucault (1980)
Individuals are the vehicles of power, not its points of application
Foucault (1979)
What we need is a political philosophy that isn’t erected around the problem of sovereignty. We need to cut off the King’s head
Moon and Brown’s (2000)
study of the remaking of the National Health System in Britain has shown how spatialized language became crucial to spatial political geographies of government. By using the tropes of neoliberalism to construct the local scale as ‘government free’ and ‘flexible, innovative and energetic’ (2000: 70) the state put forward a spatial discourse that championed the local as a site autonomous from centralized control, while at the same time regulating it more intensely
Painter's (2005)
Governing from a distance: work on regionalism, where he demonstrates that the Regional Economic Strategies in England work on the same principles – supposed regional autonomy which is really increasingly controlled from the center. These cases indicate that space matters in governmentality, and the ways in which spaces and places are formed and managed through governmentality needs to be a key area of concern.
Sand (1998)
General ideas of hollowing out of state, governing above and below
Ayres and Stafford (2014)
State is still powerful. Analysed Regional Funding Allocation (RFA) process in UK, found lack of political legitimacy and a devolutionairy process where the central government still held the upper hand (links to Davies, 2012). This supposed 'network approach' limited their ability to achieve good outcomes
Ever and De Vries (2013)
Idea of governance as a removal of hierarchical and replaced by horizonal not true. Long term, content outcomes need a centralised government. 5 Mega City Regions in US and UK
Brenner (2004)
National state institutions still play key roles in formulating, implementing, coordinating and supervising urban policiy iniatives
Walker et al (2011)
Crisis led to doubt about efficacy of market, government plays role in stimulating economic growth, stablising economy and regulating markets in public interest. Critique of NPM
Marsh, 2008
the frequency of horizontal transactions across state, market, and civil society has increased
Thompson, 2003
networking depends on cultivating trust and is virtuous
Stone, 1989
public authorities must cultivate networks to govern efficaciously - effective governance depends on coalition building and that public offi cials and other resource-rich actors, notably downtown development elites, are well placed to forge alliances and set the governing agenda
Rhodes (2007)
Governance utilizes policy networks which are informal institutional linkages between governments, professionals, unions, businesses etc. in order to deliver services and where the core executive (PM, ministers, treasury) rely on diplomacy rather than direct control to steer these networks. The author argues that Thatcher and others attempted to reduce governments power by relying on these networks but in fact this had ‘unintended consequences’ where the system became fragmented forcing cooperation among many actors leading to a multiplication of the networks it was suppose to replace. Argues the core executive lost direct control and there was a hollowing out of the state from “from above (for example, by international interdependence); from below (by marketization and networks); and sideways (by agencies and the several species of parastatal bodies)”
Jordan et al., (2005)
NEPIs- proposed, designed and implemented by non-state actors e.g. eco-labels, relates to self governance
Khan (2013)
Looking at cities and environmental policies. Local authorities lack authority and therefore assemblages of different local actors are needed
Luke (2003)
Women, poor and minorities are excluded
Gunningham (2011)
argues that efforts to improve the implementation of regulation (including NEPIs) do not follow a single strategy. Instead, policy actors adjust their own particular circumstances as well as their own capabilities and motivations. In doing so, he suggested a mixed (or hybrid) approach of combining instruments and fitting them to the prevailing context. Therefore, its highly context specific how NEPIs are operationalized and to what extend hierarchical command-and-control style coercion dominates.
Jordan et al., (2013)
Its highly context specific whether NEPIs are being adopted, how they are implemented, and whether they are successful. However, with the shift in governance, the NEPIs are still a small fraction of policy instruments and hierarchy continues to play a significant enabling role in their adoption
Jessop (2011)
the state has become (among other things) the organizer of self-organizing governance mechanisms
Davies (2012)
Sees the cultivation of networks as a hegemonic strategy of western neoliberalism that implemented its ideologies through passive revolution strategies (top-down changes made by the hegemonic bloc). Refutes the assumption that networks are “flexible structures that are inclusive, information rich, and outside the scope of direct bureaucratic control”. He thinks there is low trust, hierarchical network management, and network closure and where coercive processes dominate. Fear, contract, coercion, selective incentives, resource interdependencies, and trust are all important connecting (and disconnecting) variables. The perspective of the integral state is an alternative strategy for exploring the mix and overcoming the ‘government to governance’ dualism, positing the relationship between coercion and consent as dialectical and enduring in the struggle for hegemony
Sorenson and Torfing (2009)
governance networks are not inherently effective, political struggles determine form and functioning, networks are heterogenou and depend on societal context
Bevir (2011)
Governance needs to be less structualised and realise that the idea of a state is a human construst, should learn from governmentality's ideas of power and control. Governmentality needs to move away from seeing the state as a monolithic organisation and appreciate the insights governance has to offer in regards to networks and the many actors involved
Bevir (2011)
Governmenality ignores human agency, and ignore social practices and patterns
Rutherford (2007)
Adapts foucault's (1) analytics of power (discourse we use), (2) biopolitics, and (3) subjectivities (being moral= recycling) to explore how the environment is made a governable thing.
Lasswell (1948)
Original idea of 'policy cycle' problem definition --> Agenda Setting --> Policy Development --> Implementation --> Policy Evaluation --> Problem definition
Bridgeman et al., (2003)
Policy cycle is useful if the aim is to make the public servents make sense of the policy task, however it should only be seen as a first step, a guide amid complexity
Brown and Purcell (2005)
‘‘the local trap’’ assume organization, policies, and action at the local scale are inherently effective than activities organized at other scales. Scale is socially produced rather than ontologically given, therefore, there is nothing inherent about any scale, and so one scale cannot be intrinsically better than another. Scale has no inherent qualities and therefore leads to no particular outcomes.
Solsebury (2001)
Latour ideas of power and knowledge, therefore evidence-based policy is not the solution, who decides what is evidence etc.
Dikec (2005)
Space is political
Bomberg (2007)
Rise of NGOS and corporate lobbyists as 'policy teachers'. Intermediaries in passing EU policies to others
Angel and Rock (2005)
Global intrafirm standards are driving environmental performance and allows for increased learning and innovation within a multinational corporation.
Angel and Rock (2005)
Firms are applying consistent intra-firm global standards on all their plants and their suppliers as to produce consistent products. Firms raise their standards to access certain markets, such as the EU, which has stringent regulatory regimes, which lead to the environmental standards of their plants within developing countries to exceed that of their governments. Author argues that reaching higher standards offers an opportunity for inter-firm learning and innovation creating a competitive asset, such as understanding and tracking your supply and product value chain.
Bauer et al., (2008)
– Anglo-american governance system and their concept of shareholder value is becoming adopted within European corporate governance – they act to maximise short-term shareholder value – the integration of global financial markets, market-standards of governance dominate formal regimes of governance which discount the long-term (returns in the long-term)
Ghoshal (2005)
Argues that many of the theories taught in business management are seen as a science, common sense, rigid and law like. Mangers come to believe they have no control over outside forces, like shareholder demands, these theories are deterministic and self-fulfilling – making excessive truthclaims based on partial analysis and both unrealistic and biased assumptions – particularly he doesn’t like the principal-agent model – which he then thinks allows managers to justify unethical behaviour – He argues shareholders merely own a right to the residual cash flows of the company, but don’t own any of its assets, they are not the only important stakeholder of a company: employees, costumers, communities they operate in
Quattrone & Hopper (2005)
Distance is not necessarily physical or subject to the size of an organization it is how and what type of information is communicated and made available. recursive processes of constructing and accumulating information creates a dichotomy between controllers (the centre) and the controlled (the periphery) (Latour, 1987, 1999). Accounting does not reflect reality but constructs it by providing particular forms of organisational visibility and power–knowledge relations. space and time are subjectively created; accounting is integral to this; and attributes of distance are not merely physical. Distance is not an objective measure of preordained features but is defined by actors, and the instruments of control and knowledge used to manage it (Thrift, 1996). Talked about how a company is organized impacts the ‘distance’ between managers (controllers) and subsidiaries (the controlled).
Quattrone & Hopper (2005)
Distance is constructed. This study reveals shortcomings of studies concerning distance within large organisations in terms of centralisation vs. decentralisation dilemma or action at a distance. The research issue in large organisations is not identifying where centres of power and control do and should reside but rather tracing how control is related to integration and establishing order into work activities.
Porter and Van der Linde (1995)
Argue that env regulation that enables innovation can reduce costs of complying. Regulation should/can 1) force information gathering/sharing 2) reduces uncertainty and hesitation to invest in pollution reduction 3) incentives innovation 4) levels the playing field: companies have no incentive to improve if others wont 5) innovation can offset costs of complying. How regulation should be designed: 1) Innovation should be left to the firm and not the state- regulation should worry about outcomes not tech being applied; 2) regulations should foster continuous improvement, rather than locking in any particular technology; 3) must reduce uncertainty.
Crusto (2005)
The Sarbanes-Oxley act and SEC regulations suck for disclosing env liabilities. Voluntary disclosure not enough. The materiality standard limits the scope of mandatory disclosure of environmental liabilities. – if you’re a large company your env laibilites or cost probably don’t impact you that much so you don’t have to disclose 1) a disclosure need not be certain; (2) a disclosure need not be material; (3) a disclosure need not be consistent over time; (4) a disclosure need not reflect a complete picture; and (5) a disclosure should accentuate actual or potential risk to human health and the environment regardless of costs
Crusto (2005)
In favour of corporate environmental disclosure. 3 reasons why corporate environmental disclosure is beneficial. First, it is investor focused, providing useful information to investors. Secondly, when properly performed serves the business interests by improving the entity’s ability to forecast the future. It is a useful planning tool. Thirdly, the public, consumers and investors are entitled to complete and accurate reporting about corporate behaviour. Many reasons why Cumulative Materiality Standard would be beneficial as a replacement for misleading green reports. It would encourage uniform environmental management practices. Provides a competitive business advantage and is ethically the right thing to do. What gets counted gets married. Also note: While some unique piercing the corporate veil cases involve federal environmental violations, a corporate will lose its corporate status for violating environmental laws only in extremely limited instances. Also note – discusses ISO 14000 briefly. - Rosie
Kaplan & Norton (1996)
the scorecard addresses a serious deficiency in traditional management systems: their inability to link a company’s long-term strategy with its short-term actions. Financial measures and targets bear little relation to the company’s progress in achieving long-term strategic objectives and focus on short –term financial measures. Mission statements and visions can be misinterpreted and don’t translate to short term actions – need operational measures. Able to measure progress. Can then link reaching goals to performance rewards. Helps monitor progress so allows for adaptive management approach to the strategy. Puts emphasis on stakeholders other than shareholders - costumer and employ satisfaction.
Orlitzky et al., (2003)
There is a positive relation between corporate social and environmental performance and financial performance
Robertson & Wright (2006)
Show emprical evidence that questions whether conventional dividend yields predict aggregate stock returns. The two where thought to be correlated. This suggest that paying out dividens to stockholders wont improve stock prices and therefore such short-term gains are of lesser importance then once thought.
Rappaport (2005)
Managers blame investors obsession with quarterly earning as a rational for their shorterminism. Average stock holder is one-year, so high turn overs making short-term gains an attractive goal while small dividends not enough incentive to stick around. The willingness of executives to forgo or delay value-creating activities to meet quarterly earnings targets demonstrates the importance they attach to meeting expectations – also push expenses to the future to improve quarterly earnings. Don’t compensate managers with stock options – they go up and down regardless of their performance – should be based on industry specific index, how they do comparatively.
Lowenstein (1996)
Big fan of acounting and disclosing stuff about a firm since it forces managers to measure stuff which then means they can manage that stuff better - since you only manage what you measure ... Specifically, investors care about a firms liabilites so the firm must measure and report on their liabitities thus managers are enabled and incentivised to deal with them better
Jensen & Meckling (1976)
Theory of The Firm - they are firm believers of the principle-agent problem where managers incentives are not aligned with their shareholder so wont always max value - therefore, max profits and min costs is the best metric with which to run a company, that should be everyone’s goal, which will lead to benefiting the shareholders [this logic is critiqued by Ghoshal (2005)]. Firms create social value through income, employment, tax revenue
Bansal & Knox Hayes (2013)
Argues that the shift in organisational theory from physical materiality to socio-materiality undermined the importance of natural environment in organisational life. Ignoring physical reality is problematic, especially because resources that organisations rely on is grounded in the physical.
Bansal & Knox Hayes (2013)
Time-space compression that has occurred with the growth of globalization, communication technologies, transport, and financialization/marketization of ‘things’ – carbon, commodities – Therefore the ways in which companies/organizations conduct their activities have become disembodied from the material world – social constructs influence how we see, or more importantly, don’t see the ways in which the material world is impacted. Example: Apples manufacturing processes have compressed time – through accelerated production of new products and discounting the distant future – while also compressed space – through outsourcing to access cheaper labour, slack env regulation, utilize suspect suppliers for materials – has disembodied their manufacturing processes from the ramifications they have on the material world and on the people they indirectly employ.
Bansal and Roth (2000)
Different motivations for environmental responsiveness are influenced by three contextual conditions: field cohesion, issue salience and individual concern. which can lead to environmental responsiveness.
Vogel (2005)
people are not willing to internalize their externalities through their consumption
Teece (2010)
Business Models, Business Strategy and Innovation. Whenever a business enterprise is established, it either explicitly or implicitly employs a particular business model that describes the design or architecture of the value creation, delivery, and capture mechanisms it employs. The essence of a business model is in defining the manner by which the enterprise delivers value to customers, entices customers to pay for value, and converts those payments to profit. It thus reflects management’s hypothesis about what customers want, how they want it, and how the enterprise can organize to best meet those needs, get paid for doing so, and make a profit.
Jacobs (2006)
recent ECJ decisions suggests that the court is prioritising environmental protection. Environmental protection is ‘one of the Community’s essential objectives’. Recent cases have prioritised environmental protection over free trade objectives. This case represents a trend of increasing environmental scrutiny and prioritisation within the EU.
EPA vs. CMC Heartland (1992)
Milwaukee Road became bankrupt, left gaping hole which it had used to dump paint sludge and coal ash. Split into two companies following bankruptcy. There was an opportunity to creditors to claim, but EPA didn’t take the opportunity. EPA sued new company, CMC Heartland Partners – issuing order to clean up hazardous waste site. CMC claimed that order violated terminal injunction in reorganisation. However: nuisance claim attaches to the land. As long as nuisance was ongoing, continuing to cause damage, the fact that Milwaukee Road was bankrupt does not absolve CMC. Quoted Kovacs, ‘we do not question that anyone in possession of the site, whether it is a debtor or another, or a vendee from the receiver of the bankruptcy trustee, must comply with the environmental laws of the state of Ohio. Plainly that person or firm may not maintain a nuisance, pollute the waters of the State or refuse to remove the source of those conditions’
Friedman (1970)
‘there is one and only one social responsibility of business – to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud’. Suggests that corporate decision makers are accountable to shareholders. If corporate executive spends money towards ‘responsibility’ and reduces return to shareholders he is spending their money. If his actions raise the price to customers, he is spending the customers’ money. If it lowers the wage of employees, he is lowering employees’ money. Corporate executive is imposing a tax, but deciding how it should be spent, when that should be up to civil servants. Also corporate executive is presumably an expert in running a company, not an expert in social policy. Some people suggest that problems are too urgent to wait on political processes – and businessmen is a quicker way to address problems. He suggests that this should be rejected on the grounds of principle. Suggests corporate social responsibility is a ‘cloak’ bordering on fraudulent tactics. He suggests that the doctrine is antithetical to a free society.
Kotter (2007)
8 steps towards leading change. Getting a transformation started requires the aggressive cooperation of many individuals. Without a sensible vision, a transformation effort can easily dissolve into a list of confusing and incompatible projects that can take the organisation into the wrong direction or nowhere at all. This vision needs to be clearly communicated and credible, integrated into the corporate culture.
O'Connor (1991)
Second contradiction of capitalism. Unsustainable exploitation of nature > resources severely diminished: environmental degradation causes health issues and decline in wellbeing > capitalism’s conditions of production are undermined > environmental and economic crisis
Funcowitz and Ravetz (1993)
Whereas science was previously understood as steadily advancing in the certainty of our knowledge and control of the natural world, now science is seen as coping with many uncertainties in policy issues of risk and the environment
Lovbrand and Stripple (2011)
CARBON as an object of governance/ governmentality. arbon accounting as a rationality of government is primarily concerned with the ways in which carbon can be measured, quantified, demarcated and statistically aggregated
Verweij et al., 2006
Clumsy solutions- response strategies combining different perspectives different ideas about solutions
Callon (1998)
Cold negotiations, agreement regarding overflows is easily arrived at- possible world states are easy to identify, hot negotiations- terms aren’t agreed upon
Deleuze and Guattari (1991)
“Philosophy does not consist in knowing and is not inspired by truth. Rather, it is categories like Interesting, Remarkable, or Important that determine success or failure” – it’s a tool with which to try to understand and realize the world
Coase (1960)
Carbon markets reflect the principles of economic theory that support market mechanisms to price natural resources and internalize environmental externalities
Lohmann (2006)
Good overview of how carbon market (esp Kyoto) came into being and critiques its rationale as a technical fix that doesn't fix in the vein of STS
Lefebvre (1991)
contends that the capitalist class maintains hegemony by controlling the use and knowledge of space
Bansal and Knox-Hayes (2013)
Time-space compression that has occurred with the growth of globalization, communication technologies, transport, and financialization/marketization of ‘things’ – carbon, commodities – Therefore the ways in which companies/organizations conduct their activities have become disembodied from the material world – social constructs influence how we see, or more importantly, don’t see the ways in which the material world is impacted. Example: Apples manufacturing processes have compressed time – through accelerated production of new products and discounting the distant future – while also compressed space – through outsourcing to access cheaper labour, slack env regulation, utilize suspect suppliers for materials – has disembodied their manufacturing processes from the ramifications they have on the material world and on the people they indirectly employ.
Harvey (1989)
“Space does not exist without matter and the objective qualities of time–space cannot be understood, therefore, independently of the qualities of material processes” - he challenges the idea of a single and objective sense of time or space, against which we can measure the diversity of human conceptions and perceptions: “I shall not argue for a total dissolution of the objective-subjective distinction, but insist, rather that we recognize the multiplicity of the objective qualities which space and time can express and the role of human practices in their construction” (p. 203).
Frame (2008) and Rayner (2006)
Wicked problems are: Unique; sysmpotmatic of deeper problems (e.g. London airports); characterised by contradictory certitudes; redistributive implications for entrenched interests; no clear set of crisp, alternative solutions; persistent and insoluble; offer no opportunity to learn by trial and error
Dixit and Pindkyk (1995)
Options approach: Highlights hot it is important to invest in options insread of purely exercising investments. The delay in waiting for an option to pan out is more liekly to be profitable or worth the investment than choosing to do something right away
Funcowitz and Ravetz (1993)
Post Normal Science: Science always evolves, science is now called on to rememdy the pathologies of the global industrial system of which it forms the basis. Whereas science was previoulsy understood as steadily advancing in the certainty of our knowledge and control of the natural world, now science is seen as coping with many uncertainties in policy issues of risk and the environment. High levels of uncertainty and high decision in stakes
Verweij et al., (2006)
Clumsy solutions= mix different worldviews in flexible and emergent manner but make sure none is excluded. Cherish conflict as it is endemic, inevitable and desirable. Moves away from consensus on problem formulation, causes and solutions towards compromise, negotiation and coalition building. Consensus is increadibly unlikely to materalise. Policy responses have to be plural- every worldview is partial
Clumsy slutions Pros
More stakeholders, oppurtunity to speak, sense of ownership over solution reached- legitimacy? Gets the ball rolling on actual action, counter-hegemonic, intuitive, digestible and accessiple, acknowledges limits of science, resilient, multiple ways of addressing different issues, realitstic
Clumsy solutions Negatives
Does not address power, Gramscian critique- cultural hegemony- everyone is at the table but on different levels, no real change, dilution of solutions and progressive views and change- weakened middle ground, focuses on lowest common denominator (could be seen as a strength), assumes pre-existing shared ethic of compromise, doesn't include structures of accountability, how novel is it? Resource and time intensive, inertia
Verweij et al., (2006)
Failure of neat Kyoto Protocol, made by hierarchists, praised by egalitarians but offered nothing to individualists and unrealistic about the fatatlism of ost people in the face of climate change
Frame (2008)
NZ 100 year vision- development of sustainability frameworks over much longer timescales than current norm in local authorities
Grint (2008)
Leadership in wicked problems: fromthe Hierarchists we considered the role of askingquestions not providing answers, the issue of relationshipsover structures,and of reflecting on rather than reacting toWicked situations. From the Individualist we consideredthe importance of Positive Deviance not NegativeAcquiescence, the encouragement of ConstructiveDissent over Destructive Consent and the role of NegativeCapability. Finally, from the Egalitarians we considered theuse of collective intelligence not individual genius, thebuilding of a community of fate not allowing a fatalistcommunity to prevail, and to adopt an empathetic ratherthan an egotistic approach. I
Haasnoot et al (2012)
Adaptive pathways
Levin et al., (2012)
Climate change as a super wicked problem, time is running out, those who cause the problem seek a solution, authority to solve the problem is non-existent, rational discunting occurs (Arrow, 2013) pushes responses into the future
Thompson (2009)
micro example of a successful clumsy solution was the development of the Arsenal Emirates Stadium, bringing together of the different interest of the individualist actor (Arsenal FC), the egalitarian actors (local residents and club supporters) and the hierarchical actor (Islington council)
Nay and Verweij (2014)
How to generate clumsy solutions: compares individualism, egalitarianism, hierarchy and fatalism views. any given method is more likely to be successful the more it is able to activate the full range of partial solutions on offer. Second, we contend that approaches will be even more successful if they enable stakeholders to stand back from their own cognitive and social contexts- act like a hermit (5th world view).
Nay and Verweij (2014)
Citizens Juries, Deliberative Polling, Design Thinking, Future Searches, Planning Cells, and 21st form clumsy solutions. Links to CG (Whatmore, 2009)Century Town Meetings