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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
is a way or organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the same area and people
place all its power in the central governement.
Unitary governments
refers to the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local govenments.
Intergovernmental relations
Federalism decentralizes politics in America
Why is Federalism so important
establishes the Constitution, laws of hte national governemnt, and treaties as the supreme law of the land.
Supremacy Clause
states that "powers not delegated to the united States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
Tenth Amendment
McCulloch v. Maryland established the principle of implied powers, powers tht go beyond the enumerated powers of the Constitution, on the basis of the elastic clause
Implied powers
Gibbons v. Ogden defined commerce very broudly
Commerce power
the states and the national governement each remain supreme within there own spheres.
Dual Federalism
powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government
Cooperative Federalism
is the pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.
Fiscal Federalism
are themain source of federal aid to state and local governments.
Categorical grants
are awarded on the basis of competitive applications
Project grants.
are distributed according to a formula.
Formula grants
are given more or less automatically to states or communities that have discretion in deciding how to spend the money.
Block grants
(1833), the Supreme Court The 1833 Supreme court decision ruled that the Bill of Rights restrained only the national government and not states and cities.
Baron v. Baltimore
the Constitutional amendment adopted after the Civil war stat states, "No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the priveleges or immunites of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
14th Amendment
Block grants are
provided more or less automatically to support broad programs.
A unitary system is a way of organizing government so that
all power resides in a central government.
Each of the following is considered a disadvantage of federalism for democracy EXCEPT
Federalism discourages political participation
Enumerated powers are those that are
stated in the Constitution.
Federalism contributes to democracy by each of the following ways EXCEPT
providing a means for unified public policy.
Federalism is a way of organizing a nation so that
two or more levels of government have authority over the same area and people.
In cooperative federalism,
responsibilities are mingled and distinctions are blurred between the levels of government.
In dual federalism,
states and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheres.
In the history of the federal system, a major area of tension between the states and the federal government has been over
who controls public policy and what it should be.
Standard operating procedures in cooperative federalism include each of the following EXCEPT
shared funding with no strings attached
The Civil War and the civil rights movement illustrate
the supremacy of the national government.
The clause that Congress can use all means necessary and proper to exercise its Constitutional powers means that
Congress has implied powers.
The fact that a driver's license from one state is valid in other states is an example of
full faith and credit.
The one area of mutual obligations in which the states allow many exceptions is the
privileges and immunities clause.
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system is called
fiscal federalism
The rapid growth of the national government is largely due to the fact that
most problems and policies require the authority and resources of the national government.
The supremacy clause
establishes the Constitution, laws of the national government, and treaties as the supreme law of the land.
The Tenth Amendment
states that powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by the states, are reserved to the states.
The type of aid that can be used only for one of several hundred specific purposes is called
categorical grants.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Federal grants can put an unwanted financial burden on states.
Business interests have traditionally found the national government to be more responsive to their demands.
Congress is forbidden to pass any law that creates a financial obligation for the states without providing funds to meet these obligations
In Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Court narrowly defined commerce, thus limiting the national government's regulatory powers.
In McCulloch v. Maryland, Chief Justice Marshall declared that federal laws or regulations preempt state or local laws or regulations and thus preclude their enforcement.
In recent years the Supreme Court has broadened the definition of commerce to give the federal government greater regulatory power.
Project grants are awarded on the basis of competitive applications.
States are responsible for most policies dealing with social, family, and moral issues.
The American states are organized as federal systems.
The Constitution says that states are required to return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment.
The federal government often uses financial assistance in one program to influence state and local policy in another.
The federal government's presence is felt at almost all levels of government.
The more fundamental the rights, the less likely it is that a state can discriminate against citizens of another state.
The national government's share of American governmental expenditures has grown rapidly since 1929.
The percent of federal aid to state and local governments in the form of block grants has been decreasing since 1995.
The Tenth Amendment states that, unless declared in the Constitution, states' powers are superior to those of the national government.
An example of a unitary government is
The American states are unitary with respect to their local governments
When it comes to presidential campaigns, the candidates can basically ignore the states
The federal system in America decentralizes
politics, governemnt, and policies
In the U.S. the federal government is responsible for most social, family, and moral public policies
Sometimes social issues become national issues when groups try to use the power of the national government to influence the states.
Which of the following statements regarding the states is False
The states rarely produce policy inventions
The term federalism is found repeadedly in the Constitution.
Which of the following statements about the Constitution is False
It is unamendable as to the equal representation of the states in the Senate.
According to the Supremacy caluse, the supreme law of the land consists of all of
State laws
The Constitution grants the national government exclusive power to
coin money
The Constitution specifically denies to states the power to
tax imports and exports
The tenth amendement provides for
the delegation of power to the states and the people.
The quesion of how national and state powers are related was largely settled by
Civil rights movements, the of McCulloch v. Maryland, the Civil War
In 1791, the newly created national bank was regarded favorably by
One of the country's ablest lawyers, who argued the case for Maryland before the Supreme Court in McCulloch v. Maryland was
Luther Martin
In McCulloch v. Maryland, the Supreme court states that as long as the national government behaves in accordance with the Constitution, its policies take precedence over the states policies
McCulloch v. Maryland established the two constitutional principles of
National supremacy and implied powers
The implied powers of Congress
mean that Congress has pwers that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution.
New Deal and civil rights legislation illistrate the powers of the national government as derived through its constitutional requirement to regulate
interstate commerce
Conflict over federalism was at the center of the
Civil War
The battle for racial equality
demonstrates national supremacy in the federal system
The constitutional requirement that states must return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial ir imprisonments is called
The goal of the principle of priveleges and immunities is to
prohibit states from discriminating against citizens of other states.
The Supreme court has clearly identified which privileges a state must make available to all Americans, and which priveleges can be limited to its own citizens
In dual Federlism the
powers and policy responsibilities of the government layers are distict.
Cooperative federalism has been likened to
Marble cake
Eduacation is a policy area that most exemplifies
Cooperative federalsim
Which of the following is not a standard operating procedure of cooperative federalism
exclusive control by the states
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system is
Fiscal federalism
The federal aid system gives the national government very little control over the states
Categorical grants
are the main source of federal aid to states and cities.
Using federal dollars in on eprogram to influence state and local policy in another is called
cross-over sanctions.
Categorical grants include all of the following except
block grants
A type of grant awarded on the basis of competive applicaitons is the
Project grant
The federal aid programs that allow states discretion in deciding how to spend the money are
Block grants
the National League of Cities, the U.S. Conference of MAyors, and the Council of State Governemnts are governemtal interest groups.
A general rule of federalism is that, the more money at stake, the more people willargue about its distribution.
States and localities are always eager to receive increased aid from the federal government
The clean air act of 1970 is an example of
the federal courts creating unfolding mandates for the states
Federalism contributes to democracy by
creating more opportunitites to participation in democracy, increasing the opportunities for governemtn to be responsive to demands for policies, ensuring that each state can establish a power base to promote its interests.
Federalism tends to increase the amount of decision making and conflict at the national level.
Which of the following statements if False
Diversity in policy tends to encourage states t provide services that would other wise not be avaiable, such as generous welfare benefits.
Voter turnout in local elections is often
less than 20 percent
A major consequence of the U.S. changing from agriculttureal to an industrial nation was
an increase in demands on the national government for new policies
Labor unions tend to channel their demands for public policies through state govenrments rather than through the national governemnt.
The proportion of our GDP spent by state and local governemnts
has grown less rapidly than the national governemtn's share
A major criticism of the primary system is that
- A disproportionate attention goes to the early primaries.
- money plays too big a role in the primaries.
- participation in primaries is low and unrepresentative.
all of the above.
According to the Federal Election Campaign Act, candidates must
disclose who contributed to their campaigns and how the money was spent.
Campaigns are most effective in
reinforcing existing preferences toward candidates
Critics of the Political Action Committee (PAC) system are concerned that
PACs may control what the electoral winners do once in office.
Each of the following is an important function of the national party convention EXCEPT to
select members of the electoral college.
In return for contributions, Political Action Committees (PACs) hope to gain
access to officeholders.
News coverage of presidential campaigns tends to emphasize
details of the campaign game and poll results
Nomination for public office is
a party's endorsement of a candidate.
One of the more meaningful functions of a party convention today is to
orchestrate a massive send-off for the presidential and vice-presidential candidates
Prior to running, the vast majority of presidential candidates in the United States were
members of Congress or state governors
The "big mo" in a campaign refers to
The laws determining the way in which the primaries are set up and the delegates are allocated are made by
state legislatures and state parties.
The member of a presidential campaign who helps reporters make their deadlines with stories that the campaign would like to see reported is the
press secretary.
The purpose of the McGovern-Fraser Commission was to
draft reforms to increase the representativeness of the Democratic National Convention
The relationship between campaign spending and electoral success is that
spending more than your opponent does not assure victory
The Supreme Court case of Buckley v. Valeo (1976)
extended the right of free speech to PACs.
To secure votes from each region and state of the country, candidates
end up supporting a variety of local interests.
Today, a majority of the delegates to the national convention are selected through
presidential primaries.
Which of the following characteristics is NOT associated with today's state caucuses?
a private meeting of party elites
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Most television advertising has little to do with salient campaign issues.
A study by Rosenberg and McCafferty concluded that
it is possible to manipulate a candidate's appearance in a way that affects voters' choices
All other things being equal, who of the following individuals is most likely to vote?
a married union member
As the right to vote has been extended,
proportionately fewer of those eligible have chosen to vote.
Elections serve the purpose of
- socializing and institutionalizing political activity.
- providing regular access to political power.
- providing a legitimate means to replace leaders.
- all of the above
If a presidential candidate does not receive a majority of electoral college votes, then the president is chosen
by the House with one vote for each state
In the 1950s, the single best predictor of a voter's decision of how to vote was
party identification
In the election of 1800
the candidate with the second highest number of electoral votes became vice president
In the election of 1896 the Republicans supported
the gold standard
Many voters have come to feel that they no longer need the parties to guide their choices because
modern technology makes it possible for them to evaluate and make their own decisions about the candidates.
Parties and candidates
are skilled in the art of ambiguity.
Policy voting has increased in recent years primarily because
candidates are regularly forced to take some clear stands in order to appeal to their own party's primary voters.
Retrospective voting refers to voting
for an incumbent because the perception that his or her policies have made you better off
Studies have shown that the most important dimension of candidate image is
The 2000 election was the first presidential election in which
the courts played a pivotal role
The belief that ordinary people can influence the government is known as
political efficacy
The electoral college system can introduce bias in the electoral process that favors
big states
The voter registration system is
an important factor in low voter turnout.
Voters in some states can put a proposed law on the ballot with
an initiative petition.
Which of the following conditions is NOT central to policy voting?
a voter's party identification
Which of the following factors is NOT central to the decision of whether or not to vote?
the knowledge that most elections are extremely close
Which of the following factors is NOT central to the decision of how to vote?
Simplified registration procedures