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63 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
conditional reasoning
occurs when the reasoner must draw a conclusion based on an if-then proposition
confirmation bias
the tendency to seek confirmation rather than disconfirmation of what we already believe
heuristics
informal, intuitive, speculative strategies that sometimes lead to an effective solution and sometimes do not
deductive reasoning
the process of reasoning from one or more general statements regarding what is known to reach a logically certain conclusion
mental models
knowledge structures that individuals construct to understand and explain their experiences; an internal representation of information that corresponds analogously with whatever is being represented
pragmatic reasoning schemas
general organizing principles or rules related to particular kinds of goals, such as permissions, obligations, or causations
premises
propositions about which arguments are made
satisficing
occurs when we consider options one by one, and then we select an option as soon as we find one that is satisfactory or just good enough to meet our minimum level of acceptability
subjective probability
a calculation based on the individual's estimates of likelihood, rather than on objective statistical computations
subjective utility
a calculation based on the individual's judged weightings of utility (value), rather than on objective criteria
syllogisms
deductive arguments that involve drawing conclusions from two premises
algorithms
sequences of operations that may be repeated over and over again and that, in theory, guarantee the solution to a problem
convergent thinking
attempt to narrow down the multiple possibilities to converge on a single best answer
creativity
the process of producing something that is both original and worthwhile
divergent thinking
when one tries to generate a diverse assortment of possible alternative solutions to a problem
functional fixedness
the inability to realize that something known to have a particular use may also be used for performing other functions
ill-structured problems
problems that lack well-defined paths to solution
incubation
putting the problem aside for a while without consciously thinking about it
isomorphic
the formal structure is the same, and only the content differs
mental set
a frame of mind involving an existing model for representing a problem, a problem context, or a procedure for problem solving
negative transfer
occurs when solving an earlier problem makes it harder to solve a later one
positive transfer
occurs when the solution of an earlier problem makes it easier to solve a new problem
problem space
the universe of all possible actions that can be applied to solving a problem, given any constraints that apply to the solution of the problem
problem-solving cycle
includes problem identification, problem definition, strategy formulation, organization of information, allocation of resources, monitoring, and evaluation
productive thinking
involves insights that go beyond the bounds of existing associations
transfer
any carryover of knowledge or skills from one problem situation to another
transparency
occurs when people see analogies where they do not exist because of similarity of content
well-structured problems
problems that have well-defined paths to solution
cooperative principle
principle in conversation that holds that we seek to communicate in ways that make it easy for our listener to understand what we mean
dialect
a regional variety of a language distinguished by features such as vocabulary, syntax, and pronunciation
dual-system hypothesis
suggests that two languages are represented somehow in separate systems of the mind
linguistic relativity
the assertion that speakers of different languages have differing cognitive systems and that these different cognitive systems influence the ways in which people speaking the various languages think about the world
metaphor
two nouns juxtaposed in a way that positively asserts their similarities, while not disconfirming their dissimilarities
pragmatics
the study of how people use language
simile
introduces the word like or as into a comparison between items
single-system hypothesis
suggests that two languages are represented in just one system
speech acts
addresses the question of what you can accomplish with speech
comprehension processes
used to make sense of the text as a whole
connotation
a word's emotional overtones, presuppositions, and other non-explicit meanings
content morphemes
the words that convey the bulk of the meaning of a language
deep structure
refers to an underlying syntactic structure that links various phrase structures through the application of various transformation rules
denotation
the strict dictionary definition of a word
discourse
encompasses language use at the level beyond the sentence, such as in conversation, paragraphs, stories, chapters, and entire works of literature
dual-system hypothesis
suggests that two languages are represented somehow in separate systems of the mind
dyslexia
difficulty in deciphering, reading, and comprehending text
function morphemes
a morpheme that adds detail and nuance to the meaning of the content morphemes or helps the content morphemes fit the grammatical context
lexical access
the identification of a word that allows us to gain access to the meaning of the word from memory
lexical processes
used to identify letters and words
lexicon
the entire set of morphemes in a given language or in a given person's linguistic repertoire
morpheme
the smallest unit that denotes meaning within a particular language
noun phrase
syntactic structure that contains at least one noun (often, the subject of the sentence) and includes all the relevant descriptors of the noun
phoneme
is the smallest unit of speech sound that can be used to distinguish one utterance in a given language from another
phonemic-restoration effect
sounds that are missing from a speech signal are constructed by the brain so it seems to the listener that he actually heard the missing sound
phrase-structure grammar
syntactical analysis of the structure of phrases as they are used
psycholinguistics
the psychology of our language as it interacts with the human mind
referent
the thing or concept in the real world that a word refers to
semantics
the study of meaning in a language
surface structure
a level of syntactic analysis that involves the specific syntactical sequence of words in a sentence and any of the various phrase structures that may result
syntax
refers to the way in which users of a particular language put words together to form sentences
thematic roles
ways in which items can be used in the context of communication
transformational grammar
involves the study of transformational rules that guide the ways in which underlying propositions can be rearranged to form various phrase structures
verb phrase
syntactic structure that contains at least one verb and whatever the verb acts on, if anything
word-superiority effect
letters are read more easily when they are embedded in words than when they are presented either in isolation or with letters that do not form words