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24 Cards in this Set

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Hinduism in India statistics

Hinduism is a religion belonging to 85% of the population




Only 5% said there religiosity has declined while 30% said it has increased. - Centre for developing societies

What does Nanda say regarding Hinduism and Consumerism

Globalisation has created a huge and prosperous scientifically educated middle class in India which is the people secularisation theory applies to first.




Yet, as Nanda observes that people continue to believe in religion.




The survey found that urban educated people are more religious than there counterpart - It has become fashionable to be seen as religious.




Middle class are now more attracted to what was once saw as low status gods worshipped by the poor and as they are seen as more responsive to people's needs than traditional great hindu gods.



What does Nanda examine the link between religiosity and wealth to be?

She rejects explanations of insecurity and that religion is a defence to modernisation. The indian's are actually optimistic about the opportunities globalisation brings. Nanda argues there religiosity is about there ambivalence and newly found wealth.




Ambivalence = Renunciation of materialism and worldly desires and prosperity of middle class. This is resolved by turning to modern holy men and tele-gurus who preach that desire is not bad but a manifestation of divinity and motivates people to do things.




Similarly, they take the edge off guilt by teaching middle class consumerism can be spiritually balanced by paying for appropriate and extravagant rituals. - Displays one wealth. Modern version Hinduism legitimate middle class position and allow them to adjust to capitalism.

Nanda - Hindu Ultra nationalism explanation

Pew Global Attitude Survey found 93% Indians agreed with the statement - Our people are not perfect, but our culture is superior to others. - these values are the contributing success of India.




The worshipping of Gods, have become the same as worshipping the nation of India - Civil religion




India has also penetrated public life - in education, Hindu sciences such as astrology are being taught as an academic subject in public universities and being supposedly used to predict earthquakes and natural disasters.

Criticisms of Nanda

It does not give an explanation for how religiosity has increased in poor people




It only accounts Hinduism




The middle class only accounts for 20-30% of the population.



What does Gordon Redding argue?

Describes the spirit of capitalism among Chinese entrepreneurs in the tiger economies. He sees their post Confucian values encouraging hard work, self discipline, frugality and a commitment to self education and improvement. This effect was the similar to that of protestant ethic - Calvinism leading to capitalism

What does Berger argue?

Argues that Pentecostalism in Latin Ameica acts as a functional equivalent to Weber. Pentecostalims has a similar lifestyle to Calvinism and so it has a strong affinity with capitalism.




In Chile and Southern Brazil, there is a growing and prosperous pentecostalist middle class leading to capitalism.




Beger also notes that natural resources are also needed - Pentecostalim has grown in North Brazil but has remained backwards through lack of resources.

What does Lehmann argue?

Christianity has become globalised and expanding out of Europe, first into South America where he distinguishes between the teo phases:




- First phase was where Christianity accompanied colonisation and was poised on the people suppressing indigenous religion.




-It has now grown through popularity. By 2000 there was 80 million pentecostalists in Brazil alone.




Attributes the success to a global religion that had the ability to plug into and incorporate local beliefs. It preached similar message worldwide but used symbols and imagery from cultures and existing religious beliefs.




Also successful because it is popular with the poor who make up the vast majority of the population and uses global communications such as road shows and media tours by celebrity preachers.

What are the features of Fundamentalism

Defining there holy book as the literal truth




Traditional dogmatism where traditional authority goes largely unquestioned and is compulsory - submission to authority such s Calvinism




Avoid contact with others who think differently from them. Justify their beliefs with dogma rather than rational arguments. Evangelicals




Thought is determined by the power of tradition leading to intolerance and a refusal to engage in dialogue.




Reliance on guardians of tradition such as clergy

What does Giddens argue?

That fundamentalism is a relatively new term that is the product of the growth of globalisation which undermines traditional, social norms in family, gender, sexuality. The attraction of fundamentalism is the rigid, dogmatic beliefs that is certain in a time of uncertainty.

Features of Cosmopolitanism

A term describing people or societies which ate tolerant of views of others as a result of constant exposure to new ideas and values.




Reflexivity where people make conscious choices about they are and want to be, monitoring life to better it and freed form tradition - Buddhism.




People are in contact with others who think different from them and are required to justify their beliefs through rationality and evidence - Scientology.




Open minded and reflective leading to tolerance and dialogue - Postmodernists




Reliance on Experts - Islam




Seen as a personal choice rather than something prescribed by external religions/

What does Bauman argue?

Similar to Giddens who sees fundamentalism as a response to living in postmodernity. Brings choice, uncertainty and heightened awareness of risk which attracts people to fundamentalism as it provides certainty.

What does Castells argue?

Distinguishes between two responses to postmodernity:




- Resistant identity - defensive reaction to those who feel threatened and retreat into fundamentalist communities.




- Project identity - The response of those who are forward looking and engage with social movements such as feminism and environmentalism

Criticisms of Fundamentalism and Cosmopolitanism (Beckford)

Beckford Criticises:




- Distiguish too sharply between the two as it ignores hybrid movements




- Are fistated on fundamentalism; ignoring other important developments - including how globalisation is also affecting non fundamentalism religions such as Catholicism.




- Gidden lumps all types of fundamentalism together, ignoring important differences between them.




- Giddens description of fundamentalism as a defensive reaction to modernity ignores the fact that reinventing tradition is also modern.

What does Bruce argue

Bruce regards fundamentalism confined to monotheistic religions as they are based on the notion of one true god and one true sacred texts.




He distinguishes between two fundamentalism:




- In the west where fundamentalism is the reaction to change in society - New Christian right opposing diversity, homosexuality etc. Its aim is to reassert the true religion and restore it back to society.




- In the Third world where its usually a reaction to change being thrust upon society from outside.

Poland case study as cultural defence?

Poland was under communist rule where it was imposed from outside by the Soviet Union - Catholic church was suppressed but for many continued to embody Polish national identity. It served as a popular rally point for opposition, lent support to solidarity free trade union movement and helped largely for the fall of communism.




Church regained public role and significant influence in politics since 1980s.

Iran case study as cultural defence?

Western capitalist powers and oil companies had long influence in Iran. Including the illegal overthrow of a democratic government in 1950 to install a pro western regime headed by shah of Iran.




Successor embarked on policy of modernisation and westernisation including the banning of veils. This widened gap between rich and poor while protests were ruthlessly suppressed.




Change was rapid and causing great suffering - Islam became the focus for resistance to Shah's regime led by clerics such as the Ayatollah Khomeini - Brought about change aand creation of islamic republic.


How does Haynes evaluate the Iran cultural defence

Argues that the Iranian revolution was not typical of politics in Middle east as it was led by Mullahs. In other countries such as Saudi Arabia the religious leaders are tied with the local elite who in turn are tied to western imperialism and so local religious leaders are opposed by local fundamentalists who regard them as enemies of Islam.

What does Hunnington argue?

Identifies 7 civilisations which are larger than single nations, each with a common culture and closely identified with one of the worlds great religions. Shared religions can create social cohesion within civilisations but cause conflict between them. This is particularly true in globalised world because religious differences are the major source of identity; fall of communism thus political differences less important; nation states less significant as a source of identity creating a gap which religion fill and contact between civilisations easier and more frequent.

What does hunington argue about the clash of civilisations

Religious differences are creating a hostile is and them relationships with increased competition for economic and military power. EG. middle east.




Conflict also occurs on boundaries between civilisations suhc as former Yugoslavia war in 1990s - slavic orthodox vs islam. He sees religious conflict as harder to resolve as it is more deeply rooted in society. Palestine.




Sees west under threat, especially from Islam - fears the emergence of anti western military alliances such as confucian and islam thus urging the west to reassert there christian identity.

Evaluation of Clash of Civilisations

Only a tiny minority of the worlds Muslim population are remotely interested in the holy war against the west.




Due to globalisation, it could be said there are no distinct cultural backgrounds any more.




Western attitudes become more liberal while Muslim world remain traditional.

Cassanova criticises Hunnington

Arghues that hunnington ignores the important religious divisions with civilisations such as Sunni and Shia's

Armstrong criticises Hunnington

Hostility towards West doesnt stem from Fundamentalists Islam but it is a reaction to Western Foreign policy in Middle East

Horrie and Chippendale criticises Hunnington

Clash of civilisations is very misleadng as it portrays the whole of islam as enemy.




Jackson says hunnington work is an example of Orientalism.