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51 Cards in this Set

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J David Singer's Levels of Analysis
Individual, societal, systemic
Individual levels of analyzing
The leader and his associates are responsible for the way things work. Example: Invasion of Kuwait. Sudam Husain organized the invasion.
Societal level of analyzing
Something in society is so powerful that it causes a leader to act. Example: 2008 mortgage crisis following the housing bubble popping.
Systemic level of analyzing
International system creates a world where a certain foreign policy must be pursued regardless of the society or its leader.
Human Nature
Inherent characteristics possessed by all people that motivate them to act like they do. Example: Locke v. Hobbes, Locke thought people are inherently good (live and let live, no need for govt.), and Hobbes thought of people as inherently bad (need government to regulate people for stability). Main Point: Human Nature is worthless because we truly don't know what it is and it would be the same for everyone.
Abnormal Personality/Analysis
Insanity or mental illness. Example: Stalin due to his paranoia and murderous purges. Led to thoughts process that it would be beneficial to study these personalities in order to handle it in the future. CIA used APA to classify many world leaders (ie Castro,Husain)
Problems with Abnormal Personality Analysis
Analyzing from a distance is difficult, because of this the subject can hide thoughts, emotions, or feelings. Also speeches are generally scripted and may not be the leaders words.
Normal Personalities/Analysis
Your everyday person. Everyday differences arise between people (ie Dem. vs. Rep.) but doesn't mean their abnormal.
James David Barber
Wrote presidential character, and laid out the idea of characterizing the president in one of 4 categories based on activity and effect.
Active Positive-James David Barber
Hard worker who enjoys what their doing. Often will approach a problem from different angles. Pres. Examples: FDR
Active Negative-James David Barber
Hard worker, but doesnt necessarily enjoy their job. Tend to fixate on one solution to problems. Pres. Examples: Tricky Dick
Passive Positive-James David Barber
Low work rate but enjoys what their doing. Pres. Examples: Reagan
Passive Negative-James David Barber
Low work rate and doesn't enjoy their work. Pres. Examples: Warren G. Harding.
Problems with James David Barber's Study of normal personalities.
Groups people into extremes with no room for details. Politicians dont often write their own speeches (and they lie).
Country Level of Analysis
The behavior in the international system is a result of interactions at the country level. Example: The US will always be an world power regardless of leader or society, whereas Honduras will not be a world power because their small and they suck.
Five Schemes of Country Levels of Analysis
1.) Great Power Scheme 2.) Level of Development 3.) Revolution 4.)Status Quo vs. Revisionist Scheme 5.) Democracy Scheme
Great Power Scheme
Built around the idea that the major powers in the world greatly affect the international system. Historically Europe has been in charge, but recently US, Japan, & China have stepped up. International system is a result of the struggle between great powers to imperialize and control natural resources to gain power. Bipolar system doesnt matter as opposed to a multi-power system (US v. Russia). Leads to a country needing more resources or land (ie England).
Problems with the Great Power Scheme
Not relevant today, MP's dont invade each other these days, and countries are well equipped to defend themselves. Only focuses on certain countries, excludes smaller countries.
Level of Development Scheme
Popular after WWII when number of countries in world increased greatly. Focuses on developing countries and their economic problems
Old Economic Order-Development Scheme
Leaders meet after WWII to create IMF, World Bank, and GATT.
International Monetary Fund, created to promote international commerce and to stop fighting. 2 Tasks: establish an exchange rate system, and loaning money to countries with int. debt so they dont default and hurt the system. Problems: Developing countries dont like it because it forces them to change economic and political policies in order to receive loans.
World Bank/Problems
Made to help reconstruct after WWII and help developing countries. Today used more for natural disasters and development in poor countries. Problems: No problems.
General Agreement on Trades and Tariffs. Its a contract to ensure countries are fair with each other when trading internationally. Problems: Regulates trade on poor countries, making it harder for them to sell goods in richer countries.
Level of Development Problems
Focus is mainly on economic issues at an international level, leaving out politics, military issues, human rights, etc. Focuses only on developing countries. Mainly blacks.
Revolution Scheme
Can be disruptive on an international level. A large part of society decides that the government is no longer viable so the only solution is a complete overhaul of the system (ie Tunisia, Egypt )
Revolution Scheme-3 ways to eliminate opposition.
1.) Reeducation, often in prisons. [Example: Communist revolution in Russia.] 2.)Exile your enemies [Example: Castro in Cuba] 3.) Killing your enemies [Example: Africa]
Different Types of Revolts
Colonial Revolt: People in a colony of another power want independence, so they revolt against the imperial nation. Example: USA! v. those gay brits. (not a revolution because leaders in power stay in power, just overthrow foreign influence)
Coup D'etat: One portion of the elite overthrowing the other. Example: Military overthrowing the government. Salvidor Allende in Chile, for example. (No change in society, just an overthrow of the leaders)
Post-Revolution Policies
Revolutionaries feel the need to protect their goddamn necks (ie killing their enemies). Try to export the revolution and get other countries to follow or become allies which never works.
Status Quo vs. Revisionist Scheme
Sees no need for change on a world level, whereas revisionist see a need for change (not domestic in nature).
Revisionist Reasons for Change
1.) Territory [most likely to lead to violence] 2.) Status [Prestige] 3.) Ideology 4.) Issues
Territory Based Revisionism
Broken down into three main categories: Imperialism, Lost Territory, National Self Determination.
Imperialism Revisionism
Built on an idea that one thinks their society needs new natural resources that comes with new land and that the only way to get it is to seize it. (ie Hitler wanted to gain control of the natural resources he believed were in Russia. Thought it could be a good food producing area for Germany.)
Lost Territory Revisionism
Nation loses land through various means, and want it back. (ie. Germany took northeastern corner of France. They took what is rightfully ours and we want it back!)
National Self Determination Revisionism
The principal that any people that feel that they are different from everyone else, and they want independence, they have the right to independence. (ie. Chechnyans think they are and individual people, but the land belongs to Russia.)
Status Based Revisionism: 5 Ways
Stems from different needs for regaining on international respect: Colonial, Military, Nuclear Capability, Warfare, and Economic Dominance.
Colonial Status Based Revisionism
Britain was a world power due to its imperialism, and France wanted in on the action. Or the Italians who wanted to recreate the roman empire by taking parts of E. Europe and Africa.
Military Status Based Revisionism
Battleships, historically. Moved on to nuclear status based revisionism. Not very relevant anymore because issues now mainly stem from economic problems.
Nuclear Capability Status Based Revisionism
Iran uses nuclear development as a way to level themselves with other world powers.
Warfare Status Based Revisionism
Sometimes accidental, sometimes not. Accidental: Spanish American War. Not Accidental: Egypt wanting respect from Isreal, so engaged them to get their attention.
Economic Dominance Status Based Revisionism
US: Post WWII American dominance was due largely to the fact that we had the worlds largest economy at 40% of everything produced in the US.
Ideology Revisionism
Marxism. Marxist wanted a global communist community, and technically couldn't be achieved unless entire world was on board.
Issue Based Revisionism
Japanese manufacturers wouldn't buy American goods in order to increase the amount of Japanese products Japanese citizens bought. Dumping: Japanese manufacturers would lower prices of goods sold in US to make them buy over higher priced American goods.
Democracy Scheme
A system of government in which the people who are being ruled, make the rules of how they will be governed.
Needs in a Democratic System
1.]Universal sufferage, 2.]need of opposition (hand in hand with free press), 3.] regular scheduled system of voting, 4.] accountability (If the people don’t like what’s going on, they have an opportunity to vote against those pushing that policy).
Foreign Policy in a Democratic System: Fitness
Whether the people in a democratic society know enough about global affairs to be able to make intelligent decisions about what foreign policy should be. Two sides: Some say elites should make decision since they are the best informed/qualified, whereas some say people pay for govt. so they should have a say. Example: Vietnam was very much an elitist foreign polity war though there is no real geo-political importance.
Types of Public in a Democratic System
Mass public, attentive public, and issue public.
Mass Public in a Democratic System
80% of people, pay little attention to politics and dont participate in any manner. The working class and lower classes.
Attentive Public in a Democratic System
Egimicated and informed. Pay attention to politics and participate. Usually follow the news. (10% of population)
Issue Public in a Democratic System
Focus on certain issues in political realm (ie abortion, gay marriage, health care). Can be informed or ill informed, but are fixated on an issue. (10% of population)
Foreign Policy in a Democratic System: Warfare
Advocates of democracy argue that democracy leads to less war and conflict. Jack Levy did research and found that no prior democracies historically have engaged in war against each other. Argument is that if all countries were democratic, there would be no war.
Foreign Policy in a Democratic System: Deficiencies
Patience: People in democracies become impatient easily and expect fast solutions. People will allow time to pass if there is DANGER or RESOURCE COMMITMENT. (WWII, pearl harbor) (opposite would be Vietnam).
Secrecy: Problem is we have a free press that is trying to uncover government secrets (ie. D-Day invasion duped the Germans as well as the US public). Doesn't happen in non-democratic countries because there is no free press