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50 Cards in this Set

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ice scoured basins
the Great lakes and millions of other lakes basins on the Canadian shield and other glaciated shields
roche mountonnees
"rock sheep", bedrock ridges striated and polished on the stoss (up-glacier) side and plucked on the lee side where meltwater produced on the stoss side refroze to the lee side of the ridge
meltwater valleys
large wide valleys eroded by meltwater draining along the ice margin or spillways draining glacial lakes (e.g. all the major valleys of the southern Canadian Interior Plains)
large wide valleys eroded by meltwater draining along the ice margin or spillways draining glacial lakes (e.g. all the major valleys of the southern Canadian Interior Plains)
glacial trough
the U-shaped valley created when a valley glacier, usually by modifying a pre-glacial fluvial (V-shaped) valley
truncated spur
truncated spur
the ends of interfluves truncated by valley glaciation
interfluve
interfluve
a region between the valleys of adjacent watercourses, esp. in a dissected upland. Item number one in the image.
a region between the valleys of adjacent watercourses, esp. in a dissected upland. Item number one in the image.
valley train
valley train
valleys floors and undulating plains formed in outwash (give the alternate name to outwash plain)
Ice thrust hill
This is a glaciotectonic feature.
This is a glaciotectonic feature.
crag and tail
crag and tail
This type of lone rocky hill formation is typically isolated from other high landforms (watchout) and is formed by glaciers or ice sheets passing over, heavily eroding the land, and leaving the stronger rocks exposed. The t_____ part of this formation is a collection of softer till and soil sheltered from the glacier flow.
hummock
A __________ (of uncertain derivation; cf. hump or hillock) is a boss or rounded knoll of ice rising above the general level of an ice-field.
A __________ (of uncertain derivation; cf. hump or hillock) is a boss or rounded knoll of ice rising above the general level of an ice-field.
hummocky ice
This moraine is _caused_ by this type of ice.
This moraine is _caused_ by this type of ice.
Till plain
A type of plain that forms behind an end moraine. It shows signs of unstratified, coarse till, which has a upper and lower relief.
A type of plain that forms behind an end moraine. It shows signs of unstratified, coarse till, which has a upper and lower relief.
outwash plain
The type of plain that forms due to glaciers releasing meltwater, which carried sediment and deposits it.
ground ice
Subsurface water that is frozen in areas of permafrost.
pore ice
subsurface water frozen in the pores of the soil
lenses/veins
channels that travel in any sort of direction (name1/name2)
segragated ice
A layer of ice that increases its mass by acreting water as the ground freezes.
aufeis
A type of ice formation caused by the repeated freezing of successive groundwater flows.
A type of ice formation caused by the repeated freezing of successive groundwater flows.
intrusive ice
Water that is frozen as it intrudes into a layer or into the ground. An example of this would be a pingo.
pingo
pingo
The type of landform that is caused by intrusive ice. This basically is earth over ice. In fact, when it melts, it forms the polygon wedges as shown in the image above.
The type of landform that is caused by intrusive ice. This basically is earth over ice. In fact, when it melts, it forms the polygon wedges as shown in the image above.
C. A Quanat is man-made, and is used in the Middle East to store water, and is based on Artesian pressure. Oil wells don't exactly fit the description, since pressure can be negative.
Which of the following best describes a closed well, in which the pressure is positive, causing the water to rise until an equilibrium point is reached?
A. Cavenous aquifer
B. Oil Well
C. Artesian aquifer
D. Qanat
lens
When a pingo is put under enough artesian pressure, a sub-pingo water _______ can form.
False. Pingos are considered hydrostatic.
(True/False) Pingos are typically considered hydraulic due to the mechanical action that occurs, causing water lensing beneath the ground.
ice wedge
Caused by surface ice entering and freezing the soil
b, a, c
Frost heaving, frost thrusting, and cryoperturbation are caused respectively by which type of 9% expansion of the ice? (separate with a comma and space)
a. horizontal force
b. vertical force
c. churning
palsa
Unlike a pingo (which has a core), this type of landform is caused by thin perinnial ice wedging itself under a layer of peat.
Unlike a pingo (which has a core), this type of landform is caused by thin perinnial ice wedging itself under a layer of peat.
patterned ground
Similar in appearance to a hummock (difference is the polygonal shapes, as opposed to smaller and less defined shapes), this type of pattern in the ground is caused by upheaval (ice). More specifically, ice lifts up the larger rocks and gravel, an...
Similar in appearance to a hummock (difference is the polygonal shapes, as opposed to smaller and less defined shapes), this type of pattern in the ground is caused by upheaval (ice). More specifically, ice lifts up the larger rocks and gravel, and then is displaced by finer sediment that seeps in after the ice melts
headwall
headwall
The steep back wall of a cirque.
The steep back wall of a cirque.
a, b
Match solification and gelification respectively to their definitions:
a. the flow of soil during a thaw cycle from high to low points
b. similar to a, but during the presence of ice or permafrost.
c, b, a
The following taliks (unfrozen rock and soil during the presence of permafrost) are to be matched respectively (open, closed, through):
a. extends beyond the permafrost
b. is isolated from any sort of water, except the permafrost
c. is either exposed to air or water (similar to a cave in/kettle)
horn
Pyramidal peaks, after melting away, will form a ______.
Pyramidal peaks, after melting away, will form a ______.
ribbon lakes
These sort of lakes are long, and are caused by the erosion by (continental) ice sheets flowing over. The Finger Lakes in New York is a famous example.
These sort of lakes are long, and are caused by the erosion by (continental) ice sheets flowing over. The Finger Lakes in New York is a famous example.
chatter marks. The others are caused by the abrasion from large glaciers. Chatter marks are caused by chipping and wedging of rock surfaces.
which of the following is the odd one out?
grooves, striations, chatter marks
hanging glaciers
These types of glaciers are also known as icy aprons. Avalanching and icefalls are the mechanisms for ice and snow transfer to the valley floor below from these formations. These would have formed a valley glacier, but abruptly stopped (usually at a cliff).
rock
______ glaciers are distinctive geomorphological landforms, consisting either of angular rock debris frozen in interstitial ice, or true glaciers overlain by a layer of talus.
______ glaciers are distinctive geomorphological landforms, consisting either of angular rock debris frozen in interstitial ice, or true glaciers overlain by a layer of talus.
talus, scree
When felsenmeers (rock fields likely to have been formed by ice-wedging\freeze-thawing action) are tilted by more than 25 degrees, a t_____ slope or a s______ may form.
fellfield
This type of slope environment (the term) is typically situated in tundras, where repeated ice upheaval has forced out plants and rocks, and is usually populated only by cushion plants.
This type of slope environment (the term) is typically situated in tundras, where repeated ice upheaval has forced out plants and rocks, and is usually populated only by cushion plants.
feldmark
In fellfield environments/slopes, this particular field encompasses the types of plants and plant communities that form as a result of the nature of their location. A specific plant that fits in this category is the Azorella Compacta (Peru), as sh...
In fellfield environments/slopes, this particular field encompasses the types of plants and plant communities that form as a result of the nature of their location. A specific plant that fits in this category is the Azorella Compacta (Peru), as shown above.
Reconstituted Glacier
A glacier formed below the terminus of a hanging glacier by the accumulation, and reconstitution by pressure melting (regelation), of ice blocks that have fallen and/or avalanched from the terminus of the hanging glacier. Also called Glacier Remaniè.
barren
The ________ zone is the part that contains absolutely no vegetation as revealed by a retreating glacier. Pretty similar name to the company that makes test prep guides.
Bergy Seltzer
A crackling or sizzling similar to that made by soft drinks or seltzer water but louder. The sound made as air bubbles formed at many atmospheres of pressure are released during the melting of glacier ice. Also called Ice Sizzle. Also, it sounds really silly.
NOTE: This was featured in the Nova Glacier-or-what-ever-you-call-it-title episode, where a bunch of people came over to Antarctica to listen to the snow (containing ancient atmospheres).
Crescentic Gouge
Any curved mark or fracture produced by plucking or chipping of the glacier's bed. Larger than chatter marks,typically the horns of these gouges point up glacier. Also called Lunate Fracture or Crescentic Mark.
Debris Cone
A cone or mound of debris-covered ice, with a thick enough sediment cover to protect the ice from melting. Name is pretty self-explanatory.
disarticulation
This is the process in which a large block of ice separates itself from the retreating terminus (the terminus is submerged). The reason for which is that the buoyancy forces combined with the old crevasses and smaller cracks break off the ice block. This gets rid of a lot of ice. A famous example is the Bering Glacier in Alaska.
NOTE: contrary to what one might think, this actually accounts for less of the ice shelf disappearance than the latent heat process beneath the water.
Distributary
Some small amount of a glacier breaks off the main glacier. Could be the result of differential melting (yay glacier dynamics).
Downwasting
The thinning of a glacier due to the melting of ice. This loss of thickness may occur in both moving and stagnant ice. Also called Thinning.
Eustacy
Fluctuations in the worldwide sea-level regime caused by changes in the quantity of seawater available. The greatest changes are caused by water being added to, or removed from, glaciers. This is similar to the latent heat action in glaciers when interacting with sea water.
Foliation
The layering or banding that develops in a glacier during the process of transformation of snow to glacier ice. Individual layers, called folia, are visible because of differences in crystal or grain size, alternation of clear ice and bubbly ice, ...
The layering or banding that develops in a glacier during the process of transformation of snow to glacier ice. Individual layers, called folia, are visible because of differences in crystal or grain size, alternation of clear ice and bubbly ice, or because of entrained sediment.
true
(True/False) A glacial groove is also known as a glacial furrow.
ice-marginal lake
A lake that is located adjacent to the terminus of a glacier. Typically, these lakes form in bedrock basins scoured by the glacier. They enlarge as the glacier retreats. Sometimes they are dammed by an End or Recessional Moraine.
A lake that is located adjacent to the terminus of a glacier. Typically, these lakes form in bedrock basins scoured by the glacier. They enlarge as the glacier retreats. Sometimes they are dammed by an End or Recessional Moraine.