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14 Cards in this Set

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According to the United States Standards of Identity, gin is defined as:
A spirit that derives its main characteristic flavor from juniper berries • Bottled at no less than 40% alcohol by volume (80 proof) • “Distilled gin” is defined as a subcategory of gin that must be produced exclusively using original distillation or redistillation. • The following products are defined as types of gin and therefore must adhere to the standards set for gin: dry gin, London dry gin, geneva gin, Holland gin, Tom gin, and Old Tom gin.
According to the US standards, gin may be produced using any of the following procedures:
Original distillation from mash • Redistillation of distilled spirits • Mixing neutral spirits with or over juniper berries and other aromatics (neutral spirits being defined as “distilled spirits produced from any material at or above 190 proof”) • Mixing neutral spirits over extracts derived from infusions, percolations, or maceration of such materials • Mixing gin and neutral spirits
The EU definition of gin has slightly different specifications:
• It must be a juniper- flavored spirit drink of agricultural origin. • It must be bottled at a minimum of 37.5% alcohol by volume. • Only natural flavorings may be used. • The predominant flavor must be juniper. • “Distilled gin” is defined as a subcategory of gin that must be produced via original distillation or redistillation using a spirit distilled at a minimum of 192 proof. • “London gin” is defined as a subcategory of distilled gin whose flavor is introduced exclusively through redistillation in traditional stills and which contains less than 0.1 gram of sugar per liter and no added ingredients aside from water. This type of spirit may also be called London Dry Gin
The Dutch physician Franciscus Sylvius is often credited with
the invention of gin in the mid- seventeenth century;
The gin craze was a period between
1720 and 1751 when the per capita consumption of distilled spirits almost tripled.
Gin may be produced using
any type of neutral spirit as its base.
Juniper itself comes from
the berries of an evergreen tree, imparting a fresh pine aroma to the spirit.
The standards of the United States and the European Union both define distilled gin as a subcategory of gin. Distilled gin must be produced via original distillation , also known as direct distillation , or by redistillation .
Original Distillation:
In the original distillation method, a fermented mash is placed into a special still that contains a mesh tray and a basket or perforated rack known as a gin head . The gin head is filled with juniper berries and other botanicals, according to the distiller’s formula. As the mash is distilled, the alcoholic vapors pass through the gin head, becoming impregnated with the aromatic oils of the botanicals. The resulting vapors come off the gin still at a high proof and condense into gin.
The redistillation method is similar to original distillation; however, the mash is distilled into a neutral spirit before being flavored. To complete the flavoring, the neutral spirit is cut with water and placed in a still containing a gin head. The cut spirit is then distilled a second time in the presence of juniper berries and other botanicals. As the vapors come off the still, only the heart of the run, which contains the ideal proportion of flavorings, is used to condense into gin.
A unique style of redistillation known as cold distillation or vacuum distillation is based on
the fact that the boiling point of all beverages alters with air pressure.
Cold Compounding:
There are three basic methods of cold compounding. One involves a batch of crushed botanicals that are added to a base of neutral spirits and left to “soak” for a week or more. A second method follows basically the same procedure, except that the botanicals are enclosed in a mesh bag. The third method, commonly called the circulatory method, is similar to a method often used in the production of liqueurs. The circulatory method entails suspending a mesh tray of botanicals in the top of a large tank containing the base spirit and pumping the alcohol repeatedly over the botanicals until the desired flavor is achieved. After any of the cold compounding procedures are complete, the spirit will be filtered and, if unaged, reduced to bottling strength and bottled.
Essential Oils:
In the essential oils method, sometimes called the compounding essence procedure, a recipe of essential oils is added to a neutral spirit and thoroughly blended. The mixture is allowed to rest for a week, after which time it is filtered and, if unaged, reduced to bottling strength and bottled.
Compound gin is lower quality