Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Define "sentence"
A group of words that expresses a complete thought.
Is "Alas!" or "Horrible!" or "Fire!" a sentence.
No, they are expressions.
Is "Run!" or "Listen!" a sentence?
Yes, it is a command. The subject is you understood.
Name the four kinds of sentences.
declarative, exclamatory, imperative, interrogative.
Define "declarative sentence"
Declarative sentences make a statement.
What type of sentence is: "The horse was wild." ?
Define "imperative sentence."
Imperative sentences express a command or request.
What kind of sentence is "Ring out, wild bells,to the wild sky!" (Alfred, Lord Tennyson)
Define "interrogative sentence".
Sentences that ask a question.
What kind of a sentence is "Who are you?" (Pete Townsend)
Define "exclamatory sentence".
Sentences that express strong or sudden feeling.
What kind of a sentence is: "Alas! How hard it is to part!"
What are the two parts of a complete sentence?
Subject and predicate
Define "subject" of a sentence.
The subject denotes the person or thing spoken of.
Define the "predicate" of a sentence.
The predicate is that which is said of the subject.
What is a "term of address"?
Word or words that mirror an unexpressed subject, especially in imperative sentences.
Find the term of address and the subject: "Children, obey your parents." Subject is you understood. Term of address is Children.
What is the danger of confusion using terms of address in imperative sentences?
Terms of address may be confused with you-understood subjects in imperative sentences. "Students, do your work!"
What is a split predicate?
The subject usuallys preceeds the predicate, but it may appear between two parts of a split predicate.
In this split predicate sentence, what is the subject: "No more shall the war cry be heard."
Describe compound subject and compound predicate sentences.
Compound subjects have two or more connected subjects. Compound predicates have two or more verbs.
What is an "impersonal subject"?
Some predicates are used frequently with the subject "it". In these cases, "it" does not refer to any definite person or thing and is referred to as "the impersonal subject." Ex: It rains hard.
How are "it" and "there" used as introductory words?
By using the introductory words, we are able to place the real subject deeper into the sentence, enhancing its meaning and giving emphasis. Ex: "It is our duty to love our country." "There is a silver lining to every cloud."
Define "hypallage".
A transferred epithet, it is a rhetorical device in which a modifier is applied to the "wrong" word for emphasis. The word may be present in the sentence or may be implied logically. "the plowman plods his weary way" the hypallage is "weary" - the way is not weary, the plowman is weary.
What does a study of grammar attempt to do?
Grammar's object is to make clear the system or theory of a language. Dictionaries attempt to give an account of individual words, not grammars.
What is a simple subject?
The essential, indispensable group of words that the sentence is spoken about.
How do you diagram the simple subject
On the initial straight line divided in the center by a horizontal line, the simple subject goes to the left of the dividing line.
The simple subject will be either a noun or a pronoun. Describe the difference.
A noun names the person or thing about which the predicate says something.
A pronoun refers to this person or thing without naming it specifically.
What is a simple predicate?
A verb is the simplest predicate.
Define a "verb".
A verb usually expresses physical or mental action. The most common verb, though, expresses not action but a state of "being". Verbs may be simple, compound or split inside a predicate.
Describe an "adjective"
An adjective describes the person or thing which the noun names, usually by expressing a quality belonging to it. It modifies a noun by altering its meaning.
What is an article?
A, An, The are adjective articles.
How do you diagram an adjective?
Place a diagonal line starting under the noun modified and write the adjective on the slanted line.
What is an object?
Verbs may express action that transfers to a noun. The noun that receives the action is the direct object. If you ask whom? what? of a verb and it has an answer, that anwer is the direct object.
How do you diagram a direct object?
On the horizontal home line, after the section for the verb, draw another horizontal line through the home line and place the direct object after that.
How do you diagram a simple verb?
On the home line, place the verb to the right of the first horizontal line.
What is a transitive verb?
Transitive verbs require an object to complete their meaning, the verb action "goes over" to an object.
Is this transitive or intransitive? "I understand you."
What is an intransitive verb?
An intransitive verb does not require an object to complete their meaning.
Is this intransitive or transitive? "Now I understand."
What is a copula?
The "to be" verbs are called a copula or linking verb. It rarely has meaning itself, but connects the subject with the words of distinct meaning in the predicate.
Find the copula: "I am happy."
List ten common forms of the copula.
am, is, are, was, were, shall be, has been, had been, shall have been, will have been
What is a complement?
The word used to complete the meaning of the linking verb is called a complement.
What are the two types of subject complements?
A subject complement is either a ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT which is an adjective used with a copula verb to describe the subject or a NOUN COMPLEMENT which must always name the same person or thing as the subject.
Are these adjective or noun complements? His name is John. The day is hot.
How do you diagram a subject complement?
Regardless of whether it is a noun or adjective complement, on the home base line, draw a backward falling diagonal after the verb and list the complement.
What are verbs of incomplete predication?
they are verbs that cannot be a complete predicate alone. Examples are: become, seem, appear, feel, grow, prove. They aren't much more than a copula, and their meaning must be completed by a complement, usually an adjective complement.
Find the verb of incomplete predication: They grew pale.
What is the difference between a copula and a verb of incomplete predication?
Not much. A copula is usually one of the "to be" verbs, though.
What is the difference between an active and a passive verb?
Verbs that represent the subject as acting are active. Verbs that represent the subject as being acted upon are passive.
What are transitive verbs?
Transitive verbs take an object.
Are transitive verbs active or passive?
Either, because in sentences with an object the object can always be turned into the subject and thus change the voice to passive.
Are intransitive verbs active or passive?
Intransitive verbs are never passive because they have no objects and are powerless to represent anything as acted upon.
What are "factive verbs?"
Factive verbs are "verbs of making". Things like: They made him president.
Do factive verbs take noun or subject complements in passive voice?
Either. Always in passive voice. Ex: He was made king. (noun subject complement). It was cut short. (adj subj complement)
What is the biggest give-away or clue for finding passive voice?
The word "by" in the predicate. Ex: The children were bewitched by the music. Active voice: Music bewitched the children. "By" moves the real subject to the predicate in passive voice. Ugh.
Do active voice sentences have noun or adjective complements?
No. Active voice sentences are transitive or intransitive. Active transitive sentences with factive verbs may take an OBJECT complement. Passive sentences do take noun and adjective complements.
Define an indirect object.
An indirect object receives something from the direct object. If you put "to" or "from" in front of a possible indirect object, and the meaning does not change, you have confirmed an indirect object. I gave John the ball. IO is John.
How do you diagram an indirect object?
Under the verb, draw a downward diagonal line. Add a horizontal line at the bottom of the diagonal line and write the indirect object on it.
What is an object complement?
a nourn or adjective completing the meaning of a transitive verb. it MUST refer to the same person or thing as the OBJECT or modify the OBJECT. Ex: She made us happy.
What type of verbs when active take object complements?
Factive verbs when ACTIVE are transitive and take an object. An object complement completes the meaning of that object.
Are object complements nouns or adjectives?
Either, but they must refer only to the object and not to the subject!! Ex: She has left me lonely. You have made the room neat.
How do you diagram an object complement?
On the home base line, after the direct object, place a backward falling diagonal line and write the object complement after that on the baseline.
What is the hated and reviled Retained Object?
it is an object retained after a passive verb. The construction is illogical and condemned. Ex: I was paid the money. Or, The money was paid me.
What is an adverb?
Words that modify verb, adjectives and other adverbs.
What is a preposition?
Words used to show the relation between nouns and pronouns and other words. Ex: They went to the park.
What is a conjunction?
Words that connect words or groups of words. Examples: and, but, or
What is a correlative conjunction?
Words that connect words to show relationships. Examples: either/or, neither/nor, both/and, not only/but (also)
What is an interjection?
Exclamatory words expressive of sudden emotion and usually followed by an exclamation point.
What are the nine parts of speech?
Noun, pronoun, adjective
Verb, adverb
Preposition, conjunction