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70 Cards in this Set

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What are the basic differences between the disciplines of physical and historical geology?
historical geology involves the study of rock strata, fossils, and geological evens, utilizing the geological time scale as a reference; physical geology includes the study of how rocks form and how erosion shapes the land surface
Compared to the age of Earth accepted as correct today, how did 17th & 18th century proponents of catastrophism evision the Earth’s age?
they believed Earth to be much younger than current estimates
The currently accepted age of Earth is how many years?
4.6 billion
Which of the following best describes the fundamental concept of superposition?
any sedimentary deposit it accumulates on older rock or sediment layers
A is a well-tested and widely accepted view that best explains certain scientific observations.
During the late 19th & early 20th centuries, direct observation showed that a glacier in Switzerland flowed forward in the downhill direction while its snout (terminus) was retreating higher up the valley? Which of the following explains these observations in a rational, scientific way?
the melting rate of ice in the glacier exceeded the rate at which new snow and ice were added to the glacier
The refers to the sum total of all life on earth.
A system is one in which energy moves freely in & out, but no matter enters or leaves the system.
The composition of the core of Earth is thought to be
solid iron-nickel alloy
The is the thinnest layer of the Earth.
*Define a mineral & a rock in the best way:
in a mineral the consituent atoms are bonded in a regular, reptitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of different mineral grains
Atoms of the same element, zinc for example, have the same number of:
protons in the nucleus
*Accurately Describe Ionic Bonding:
atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, form a negative & positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges
Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?
the atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons
What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?
Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (Si02)?
Which one of the following is a sodium and calcium feldspar with twinning striations?
Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?
they are black to dark green, silicate minerals containing iron and magnesium
Which one of the following is a typical product of weathering?
Which one of the following describes a minerals response to mechanical impact?
Lava flows are typically finer grained than intrusive igneous rocks. Why?
the extrusive magma cools quickly so the mineral grains do not have time to grow
The sizes, shapes, & arrangements of mineral grains in an igneous rock are known as:
A is an open cavity in a volcanic rock that was filled by a gas bubble when the lava was still mainly liquid.
Which of the following is igneous rocks exhibit aphanitic texture?
andesite, rhyolite
In a porphyritic volcanic rock, which mineral grains are the last to crystallize?
matrix or groundmass
Visible quartz and potassium feldspar grains are the main constituents in a .
which of the following igneous rocks has a pyroclastic texture?
rhyolitic tuff
28. Which igneous rocks & environments would you expect to find unusually high concentrations of rare elements such as lithium, beryllium, and boron?
pegmatite; crystallized from a water-rich, highly differentiated, residual magma
What do pumice and obsidian have in common?
glassy texture
An texture would be most unlikely to occur in an extrusive igneous rock.
Which igneous rock or magma has the lowest silica (SiO2) content?
Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, un-fragmented, ropy surface?
what Is a major dissolved volatile constituent in both magmas and volcanic gases?
Magma is the most abundant type of erupted at oceanic spreading centers.
The ocean basin is rimmed by the most subduction zones.
Why would a plume of solid silicate rock rising slowly from deep in the mantle begin melting as it neared the base of the lithosphere?
temperatures remain high as lowered pressures decrease melting temperatures
Which phenomena accompanied the year without a summer, 1816, in parts of North American and northern Europe?
snow falls and frost in New England during July and August
What are usually the most abundant gases emitted during basaltic volcanism? (38)
water and carbon dioxide
What tends to increase the explosive potential of magma body beneath a volcano? (39)
High viscosity & dissolved gas
Which type of basaltic lava flow has its surface covered with sharp-edged, angular blocks and rubble?
What kind of eruptive activity is most likely to be highly explosive?
eruptions of big, continental margin, composite cones or stratovolcanoes
A volcano is a very large, gently sloping mound composed mainly of basaltic lava flows.
Clay minerals formed from gabbro or diorite bedrock illustrate which kind of weathering?
Frost wedging is the major weathering process contributing to the formation of which regolith material
talus slopes
What portion of an angular, fracture-bounded granitic block shows the highest rate of weathering?
the edges & corners
Clay minerals, silica (SiO2) and dissolved potassium bicarbonate in the soil water are products of which process
chemical weathering of orthoclase feldspar
What 2 factors speed up rates of chemical reaction and weathering in rocks and soils?
warm temperatures; very moist
The finely divided, red, brown, & yellow soil-coloring minerals originate by what process?
precipitation of iron oxides during the chemical weathering process
Which of the following best describes the "Dust Bowl"?
areas of severe wind erosion on the Great Plains, 1930's
Which of the following best describes sets of fractures in relatively fresh bedrock, such as granite, that are roughly parallel to the land surface
sheeting fractures
Which one of the following statements best describes erosion?
the process by which weathered rock and mineral particles are removed from one area and transported elsewhere
Assume that water filling a crack in a rock undergoes cycles of freezing and melting. Which of the following statement is true?
water expands as it freezes, casing the crack walls to be pushed apart
In which area would weathering by frost wedging probably be most effective?
in moist, temperature climates
, a common mineral found in igneous rocks, is the most abundant mineral in detrital sedimentary rocks.
compaction is a very important part of the lithification process for which of the following sediments?
which of hte following best describes bedded gypsum and halite?
evaporates; chemical sedimentary rocks
sandstone contains abundant feldspar, suggesting that the sand was derived by weathering and erosion of granitic bedrock
What cement produces bright-red & yellow colors in some sandstone
Iron oxide
Studies of deep-sea sediment cores have contributed greatly to scientific knowledge of............
climatic changes during the last four million years
What is the main difference between conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia?
breccia clasts are angular; conglomerate clasts are rounded
Which type of limestone consists mainly of tiny, marine fossils composed of calcite?
detrital sedimentary rocks are classified (named) cased on the ????
grain sizes of the detrital particles
flint, Chert, and Jasper are microcrystalline forms of......
quartz; (SiO2)
Which of the following forms at the highest grade of regional metamorphism?
What platy, parallel, mineral grains are the most visual aspect of foliated metamorphic rocks?
What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble?
calcite grains grow larger and increase in size
Which low-grade metamorphic rock, composed of extremely fine sized mica and other mineral grains, typically exhibits well-developed rock cleavage?
.............is a strong, parallel alignment of coarse mica flakes and or of coarse mica flakes of different mineral bands in a metamorphic rock.
Which of the following best describes the conditions of contact metamorphism
pressure are fairly low, the rock is in the upper part of the crust, & heat is supplied form a nearby magma body
What type of foliation results from the parallel alignment of abundant, coarse-grained, mica flakes in a metamorphic rock?