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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following does not physically loosen rocks on the surface?

Water contracting as it freezes
Crystals of salt and other minerals that exert an outward force on fractures
Roots that pry apart fractures as the root grows in size
Joints that form when rock pressures are released
Rodents and other burrowing organisms
Water CONTRACTING as it freezes
What happens to the surface area of exposed rock if a rock is fractured?

There are more pieces, but the surface area does not change
The surface area does not change because the volume does not change
The surface area increases as the rock is fractured
The surface area decreases as the rock is fracture
Surface area increases as the rock is fractured
What is the main reason why the oceans are salty?
Weathering of rocks releases chemical elements that make the oceans salty
Where does quartz in granite typically end up?
It ends up as sand in rivers, dunes, and beaches
Soil that is reddish, intensely leached, and rich in iron and aluminum minerals most likely forms in
tropical climates
What is the main process by which soils form?
What is the main force involved in the stability of slopes?
What is the angle of repose?
The steepest angle at which loose material remains stable
Which of the following is a way that slopes fail?

Large blocks fall from cliffs
Rocks, soil, sediment, and ice slides down steep hillsides
Pieces of loose rock accumulate on talus slopes until the angle becomes too steep
Soil and other loose material can flow rapidly down slopes, forming debris slopes
Which of the following has the lowest potential for landslides?

Pacific northwest
Southern Cali
Bluffs along rivers in the central US
Appalacian Mountains
The size of clasts that a stream can carry is primarily controlled by:
The velocity and turbulence of the current
Which of the folowing sediement sizes is likely to be transported mostly on the bottom of the stream bed?

Fine sand
Sticky clay particles
Pebbles and cobbles
Dissolved materials
Pebbles and cobbles
Which particles of sediment are most likely to be transported as suspended load?
Small, low density particles
Which of the following is true about the base level of a stream?

Base level indicates the normal (or base) flow level before flooding
The flat top of a mountain is the ultimate base level for most streams
A mountain is close to its base level if bedrock is close to the surfcae
Most streams have lower gradient close to their base level
Base level generally is near the steepest part of a streams profile
Most streams have lower gradient close to their base level
Which of the following is most common cause of river and stream flooding?

The onset of cold weather
Failure of levees
Intense precipitation
Global Warming
Intense precipitation
What was the cause of flooding in the 1993 upper Mississippi River flood?
Persistent thunderstorms caused large amounts of rainfall over a several state region
Which two uses consume most freshwater in the US?
Thermoelectric power and irrigation
What is the main way groundwater accumulates?
Precipitation and surface water infiltrate through upper layers of soil
Which of the following materials probably has the lowest porosity?

Well sorted, fine-grained sediment
Well sorted, coarse-grained sediment
Unfractured granite
Sand with well-rounded grains
Unfractured granite
Which of the following materials has high porosity and high permeability?

Unfractured granite
Well-sorted gravel
Compacted clay
Uncompacted clay
Poorly sorted sand, silt, and clay
Well-sorted gravel
In a material that holds groundwater, porosity:
Controls the amount of water that can be stored
What is a main way surface waters become groundwater?
Water flows through the unsaturated zone and into the saturated zone
What is a possible way to increase permeability?
Fracture the rock
Groundwater velocity (the rate of movement of ground water) is most strongly influenced by which of the following?

Local climate and humidity
Depth to the water table
Presence of wells
The slope (gradient) of the water table
The slope gradient of the water table
Which of the following is true about the water table?
The water table has a similar shape to topography but is more subdued
The permeability of a material refers to:
the ability of water to flow through a material
Which of the following combinations make for the best groundwater reservoir?

Low permeability and low porosity
Low permeability and high porosity
High permeability and low porosity
High permeability and high porosity
High permeability and high porosity
What mineral resource do we use the most of by weight?
Sand, gravel, and stone
What happens during the maturation of coal?

Impurities are driven off
Coal is buried and squeezed to a smaller volume
Energy content of the coal increases
Methane is driven off
What is the starting material for coal?
Which of the following mostly occurs within ocean-floor sediments?
Gas hydrate
How is nuclear energy produced to generate electricity?
Uranium decays into two small particles, releaseing heat in the process
How is electricity generated form hydroelectric dams or ocean tides?
Water piles up behind a dam or tidal barrier and flows down because of gravity
Which of the following is an advantage of wind power?

It can be used nearly everywhere because all areas are windy enough
Wind power is renewable and can be used in remote locations
Variable winds allow variable amounts of power generation
Wind turbines are attractive in scenic places, like off Cape Cod
It already provides a large percentage of the worlds power requirements
Wind power is renewable and can be used in remote locations
For a rock to be considered an ore it must:
Contain enough of a commodity to be mined at a profit
The main material used to produce cement and concrete is: