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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

what mineral is most resistant to chemical weathering


physical breakdown of larger rocks into smaller rocks without any change in composition is called

physical weathering

chemical weathering is dependent upon

climate, rock type, and time

why is the statue of liberty now green instead of original color brown

exposure to water and oxygen in NY humid climate has oxidized the copper

is soil a type of sediment


petroleum is found mainly in

sedimentary rocks

what are the crystals that hold sedimentary rocks together


what is the precursor rock for gneiss


localized areas of metamorphism that occur around igneous intrusions are called

contact metamorphism

how does mineral talc form

during metamorhpism

where would you go to see relatively young metamorphic rocks

himalaya mountains

what rock makes most durable long-lasting kitchen countertop


the spot within the earth's crust at which an earthquake originates is called


which earthquake waves move fastest


which earthquake waves are least/most destructive

p-waves/ s-waves

strong earthquakes can trigger

tsunami, landslides, and fires

were any U.S. coastal towns affected by the March, 2011 tsunami that devastated Japan


where are high concentrations of radon found

near granite and/or black shale

what is a fulgurite

a tube of quartzite made by a lightning strike

How do metamorphic geologists determine conditions under which metamorphic rocks form

experimental petrology

list three ways that mountains form


-erosional remnants

-deformation mountains

how do geologists determine past environments, climate, and life from sedimentary rocks




-geometry of deposit

-sedimentary structures- any feature that forms in loose sediments and gets cemented

how old is the earth

4.6 billion years

in order to be suitable for radiometric dating, a rock must contain

radioactive isotopes

the time taken for one half of a radioactive parent isotope to decay to its daughter isotope is called

half life

geologists use radiometric isotopes to

determine absolute ages of rocks

can carbon-14 dating only be used for organic material that is relatively young


unless rocks have been overturned, the oldest rock layers are at the bottom and the youngest rocks are at the the top, this is

principle of superposition

all maps should have a

north arrow, title, and scale

the contour interval on a map is

the elevation difference between contour lines

the volume of a river water flowing through a specific area is called its


why is the mississippi often brown near New Orleans

it is carrying a lot of sediment in suspension

what manmade objects are built along some riverbanks to prevent flooding

artificial levees

curves in a river channel are called


grains bounced along a river bottom are undergoing


porosity is

percentage of pore space in a sediment or rock

which would make the best aquifer?

shale, mud, granite, or gravel


what are good uses for land on a floodplain

golf course, playground, farm

when building a landfill, how can contamination of groundwater table be prevented

-line the bottom of the landfill with clay

-locate the landfill bottom above the water table

what is the result of a well drilled into a confined aquifer

water flows up to the surface on its own

when is the water table typically the highest/lowest

- in the spring after a lot of rain and snowmelt

- after a long drought

should you be excited to inherit land that once was occupied by a gas station


besides the marcellus shale, which other rock formation is being drilled for natural gas in the western PA, eastern Ohio, and WV area

utica shale

the first superfund site was

love canal, New York

what is fracking

Fracking refers to the procedure of creating fractures in rocks and rock formations by injecting fluid into cracks to force them further open.

what is the most common mineral on earth


what is the maximum amplitude of s-wave at epicenter

richter scale magnitude

what is precursor rock for quartzite

quartz sandstone

what is "the present is the key to the past"


what is rappidly approaching 400 ppm as measured at mauna loa obsercatory

co2 in atmosphere

what mineral can you eat

halite or clay

who monitors drinking water quality in the U.S.


what is thought to be hardest substance on earth


what was volcano of philipines that had a huge eruption in 1991

mount pinatubo

what is green mineral from mantle


what mineral forms in salt lakes with chemical composition NaCl

halite or gypsum

what is mineral composition of limestone and marble

Calcium Carbonate

SO2 and CO2, emissions, shallow earthquakes, and bulging lava domes are what

precursors of volcanic eruptions

what is the subsurface boundary below which all pore space is filled with liquid

water table

what are two U.S. national parks that are above hot spots

Volcanoes national park and Yellowstone

what is the fastest moving seismic wave


what is black shale or granite in you basement


what mineral when breathed in over long time can cause lung cancer


what is composite and shield

types of volcanoes

the earth is composed of what

solid inner core, liquid outer core, mantle, and crust

what crust is thin, dense, and composed mostly of mafic igneous rocks

oceanic crust

most volcanic eruptions and earthquakes

occur along plate boundaries

long narrow mountain ranges composed of volcanoes along coastlines, such as the andes mountains are formed at

subduction zones

new oceanic crust is made at

divergent plate boundaries

the himalaya mountains were formed at

continental collisions

is west virginia on a tectonically active plate boundary


is california


why is geology important

- geologic hazards

- health impacts

- earth materials are economic resource

- earth history

What kind of aed structure is this? What do they indicate about environment?
Ripples and water or air current
Which well would be best to clean up the contaminant
Well B
What direction is blue river flowing? Which town is more likely to flood
Tiny town
What feature is on the inside of a river bend
Point bar
What sedimentary rock is shown?
What sedimentary rock is shown?
This photo shows a... What type of stress is formed?
Normal fault
What geologic structure is shown? What kind of strain formed?