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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dinosaurs first appeared during the:
Triassic period.
The Cambrian period is a time in Earth's history when:
the first abundant shelly organisms appear in the fossil record
Period names on the geologic time scale, such as Devonian and Permian, provide examples of _____.
relative age
The Earth is approximately how old?
4.6 billion years
Which gas found in today's atmosphere was absent in the Hadean's and Archean's?
Convergence along the western margin of North America during the Cenozoic gave way to rifting forces that created the characteristic topography of the _____.
Basin and Range Province
Oil drilling not only provides gasoline and electric power but also material incorporated in _____.
Which of the following is a renewable resource?
Petroleum forms
by the decomposition of organic material in sedimentary rock
The conditions necessary for the accumulation of oil in an economic deposit include all of the following EXCEPT
high-grade metamorphism
The most important energy source currently in use is
fossil fuel
In this drawing of a possible petroleum reservoir in an anticline, oil and gas would most likely be trapped where?
As the velocity of flow decreases, _____.
flow tends to become more laminar
the maximum flow velocity decreases
suspended sediment starts to be deposited
All of the above are correct.
The lowest elevation to which a stream can downcut is the _____.
base level
Where would you expect to see solifluction?
Geometry of sand dunes is strongly influenced by _____.
the strength of the wind
the consistency of wind direction
the abundance of sand
Sediments deposited directly by glaciers as they melt are characterized by _____.
very poor sorting
The current interglacial interval began a little more than _____ years ago.
Some of the physiographic features that cause extreme aridity may be found together within a single desert, but the deserts found in the western United States are primarily due to being located _____.
within the rain shadow of a mountain range
Large continental glaciers are found today
in Greenland and Antarctica
Uplifted areas are subjected to erosion at the surface; this provides an example of _____.
negative feedback
Which of the following processes releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere?
There is a correlation in Earth history between warm periods and _____.
relatively large amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Excessive pumping of a well
will create a cone of depression
may cause saltwater invasion in coastal areas
may cause adjacent wells to become dry
will lower the water table locally
Groundwater discharge occurs at
Human manipulation of the groundwater system may result in
chemical changes.
change in the water table level.
salt water invasion.
The majority of fresh liquid water within the Earth exists in _____.
pores within rock and sediment
Material through which water readily flows is termed _____.
Question 2 answers
The topography of the water table _____.
is a subdued (less steeply sloping) mimic of surface topography
The ability of a porous solid to transmit a fluid is called
The water table is
the surface that marks the top of the saturated zone
The cone of depression surrounding a well
enlarges and deepens as the rate of pumping increases
Sediments deposited directly by glaciers as they melt are termed _____.
When sea level rises, causing the ocean to fill a glacially carved valley, a _____ results.
Valleys carved by glaciers tend to be shaped like the letter _____, whereas valleys carved by water tend to shaped like the letter _____.
"U" ; "V"
A lake that forms within a bowl-shaped depression formed by a mountain glacier is termed a(n)_____.
To qualify as a desert, a region must be _____.
arid, with less than 25 cm annual precipitation and very low relative humidity
As compared to humid climates, rates of chemical weathering in deserts are _____.
Saltation of sand involves _____.
grains hopping into the air, traveling for a short distance, and returning to the ground
During glacial epoch, global sea level is
Question 8 answers
lower because water is stored on the continents
Loess is
transported in suspension by the wind before deposition
Which statement does NOT apply? Desertification occurs
Question 10 answers
nly in small areas affecting at most a few million people of central Africa
Which of the following processes may be responsible for short-term cooling, yet in the long term favor warm, greenhouse climate?
The difference in average temperatures between the poles and the equator during most of the Mesozoic era was _____ that seen today.
less than
The factors that affect Earth's long-term climate are different from those that affect climate on shorter time scales.
Which of the following is an important long-term (acting over spans of tens of millions of years) factor in global climate change?
Question 5 answers
atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide
All changes within the Earth system are unidirectional and cannot be reversed.
Which of the following processes releases carbon dioxide to the atmosphere?
The factors that affect Earth's long-term climate are different from those that affect climate on shorter time scales.
One explanation for the hole in the ozone layer is that is has been brought about by human emissions of _____.
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Which of the following increases the risk of mass movement?
flooding the sediment with water beyond saturation
The principal difference between a lahar and a mudflow is the _____.
former mass contains pyroclastic debris from a volcanic eruption
The path of movement of a water particle in a wave at sea is
When sea level rises, the ocean may invade a river valley, producing a nearshore body of water of mixed and variable salinity termed a(n) _____.
As the Universe has evolved, ________.
hydrogen has been lost through fusion to form helium within stars
The concept of a geocentric Universe was first proposed during the time of the ancient Greeks. This model ________.
as held to be true by thinkers throughout the Middle Ages, up until the Renaissance
The stream of charged particles given off by the Sun, which disallowed the accumulation of hydrogen and helium in terrestrial planet formation, is called ________.
solar wind
The lightest layer of the Earth is the ________.
Unlike the lithosphere, the asthenosphere ________.
is able to flow over long periods of time
Coarse-grained gabbro is most similar in mineral composition to fine-grained ________.
Cross-bedding is commonly found in
Two common metamorphic rocks that typically lack foliation are _____.
quartzite and marble
If, during an earthquake, a hanging wall slides upward relative to a footwall, the fault is termed _____ if the fault is steep (closer to vertical than horizontal).
The epicenter of an earthquake is
a point directly above the focus
Which of the following statements is true of earthquakes?
Shallow earthquakes coincide with the crest of oceanic ridges.
Shallow earthquakes occur along transform faults between midocean ridge crests.
Earthquakes at convergent plate margins occur in a zone inclined downward beneath the adjacent continent or island arc.
Earthquakes along transform faults originate from lateral movement.
Dip and strike measurements are used to describe the orientation of
bedding planes.
planar surfaces in metamorphic rocks.